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HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES and COSMOLOGY SUMMARY. RESOLUTION. >100.000-150.000 (IGM metals, molecules, constants) (300.000 would be fine too – turbulence? See Evoli 2011) ~10.000 (galaxies, GRBs) “Linearly goeth Spectral Range, with the volume scaleth Resolution”

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slide2

RESOLUTION

  • >100.000-150.000 (IGM metals, molecules, constants)
  • (300.000 would be fine too – turbulence? See Evoli 2011)
  • ~10.000 (galaxies, GRBs)
  • “Linearly goeth Spectral Range, with the volume scaleth Resolution”
  • “Only above R ~ 150.000 Astronomy becomes Astrophysics”
slide3

20h

z=3

log NHI = 13.5 δ=0

log NHI = 14.7 δ=7

log NCIV = 12

slide4

SPECTRAL RANGE

310-320 nm (constants, IGM metals, molecules, expans.?)

350-370 nm (galaxies, tomography, expansion?)

~red (primordial Gals)

~700 nm, optical (molecules, expansion, tomography)

IR-H (metals in the IGM)

IR-K (galaxies, primordial galaxies, GRBs)

x shooter spectrum j0818 1722 z em 6 00 j vega 18 5

V.D’Odorico + 2010

X-shooterspectrum: J0818+1722(zem= 6.00, Jvega= 18.5)

Si II 1260

z=5.79

C II 1334

O I 1302

Si II 1526

z=5.06

VIS

O I 1302

Si II 1260

z=5.87

C II 1334

R=8800

NIR

R=5600

metal pollution in the universe
Metal pollution in the Universe

D’Odorico, Cupani, Cristiani+ 2012

13.8< log N(CIV) <15

An archaeological record of past star formation

Adelberger 05

reionization sources of s ystematics
Reionization: sourcesof systematics

WRONG estimate of the transmission region !!

Smaller transmission region due to the presence of associated strong overdensities !

slide9

0.86

0.64

slide10

ADAPTIVE OPTICS ?

Most cases do not require adaptive optics

(good, HIRES can be used during “bad” weather!)

The optical/higher res (constants, expansion, tomography, molecules …) [sky surface brightness]

Galaxies [intrinsic dimensions ~0.2”] not extreme AO

Would be useful for point-like sources in the IR, when we go faint (GRBs, metals in the IGM at high-z)

GLAO?

fov multiplex
FOV/Multiplex
  • Most cases do not require multiplex/wide field of view (constants, expansion, GRBs, molecules, IGM metals)
  • FOV: 30” galaxies, 3’ primordial galaxies, 5’ tomography
  • limited multiplex (~10x)
  • MULTIPLEX ANTICORRELATES WITH RESOLUTION (slicer!)
slide14

Fibers are OK or required for most of the cases (provided that the sky subtraction in the IR is correct)

IFU for galaxies? (see also HARMONI)

The whole range UV-optical-IR in one shot is highly desired (e.g. transient phenomena – GRBs, see also economy of ELT time)

Throughput MUST be large (faint objects), [cf. HARMONI ~>35%]

slide15

CALIBRATIONS

  • Justify stability at a level of few cm/s for ALL high S/N (~>200) cases
  • Need for High-Fidelity spectroscopy (see Dravins 2010)
  • Not only wavelength calibration (Laser Comb) but also (e.g.) flat fielding, relative flux resp., psf (fibers may be an advantage)
  • Telluric lines?
slide16

HARMONI

Visible and near-infrared (0.47 to 2.45 µm) integral field spectrograph, over a range of resolving powers from R (≡λ/Δλ) ~ 4000 to R~20000. The instrument provides simultaneous spectra of ~32000 (8000) spaxels in the near-IR (visible) arranged in a 2:1 aspect ratio contiguous field.

Arribas, 2011

harmoni sensitivity
HARMONI Sensitivity
  • 20 mas spaxels provide best sensitivity for point sources
  • 40 mas spaxels best for extended sources
slide19

JWST is not a competitor (complementary resolution) ☺

nor we can expect a synergy

[MIRI and FGS/NIRISS @ Goddard

NIRCAM and NIRSPEC in 2013]

slide20

HIRES

HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES and

COSMOLOGY SUMMARY

Fiber spectrograph

2 res. Modes (15.000 – 150.000)

3 arms covering (0.32) 0.35-1.7 (2.4) micron

High-throughput (>20%)

3-5’ FOV

10x multiplex for the low-res mode

High-fidelity (few cm/s, S/N~200 in one exposure)

slide21

HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES and

COSMOLOGY SUMMARY

ESO

Fiber spectrograph

2 res. Modes (15.000 – 150.000)

3 arms covering (0.32) 0.35-1.7 (2.4) micron

High-throughput (>20%)

10x multiplex for the low-res mode

High-fidelity (1 cm/s, S/N~200 in one exposure)

HIRES

slide22

HIRES

HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES and

COSMOLOGY SUMMARY

Fiber spectrograph

2 res. Modes (15.000 – 150.000)

3 arms covering (0.32) 0.35-1.7 (2.4) micron

High-throughput (>20%)

3-5’ FOV

10x multiplex for the low-res mode

High-fidelity (1 cm/s, S/N~200 in one exposure)