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Blood, Lymph and Immune Systems. Chapter 10. Blood. hem /o and hemat /o plasma - 55% formed elements - 45% serum - plasma without clotting proteins. Blood Cells. RBC - erythrocytes - erythropoiesis WBC - leukocytes - leukopoiesis Platelets - thrombocytes - thrombopoiesis. Erythrocytes.

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Blood
Blood

  • hem/o and hemat/o

  • plasma - 55%

  • formed elements - 45%

  • serum - plasma without clotting proteins


Blood cells
Blood Cells

  • RBC - erythrocytes - erythropoiesis

  • WBC - leukocytes - leukopoiesis

  • Platelets - thrombocytes - thrombopoiesis


Erythrocytes
Erythrocytes

  • erythr/o - red

  • cyte - cell

  • Hemoglobin - blood protein transports oxygen

  • Reticulocyte - immature erythrocyte

  • RBCs produced by red bone marrow


Leukocytes
Leukocytes

  • leuk/o - white

  • Protect the body against invasion

  • Pass through capillary walls


  • Granulocytes

    • neutrophils (phagocytosis)

    • eosinophils (allergies)

    • basophils (promote inflammation)

  • Agranulocytes

    • lymphocytes (production of circulating antibodies)

    • monocytes (macrophages)

  • Collection of dead and living bacteria and leukocytes called pus, abscess.


Thrombocytes
Thrombocytes

  • smallest formed element

  • made in bone marrow

  • essential to blood coagulation

  • If injury, blood comes in contact with any tissue other than the lining of the vessels, platelets stick together, form plug, seals wound. Chemicals released, series of reactions, formation of clot.


Plasma
Plasma

  • plasma

    • 92% water

    • 8% plasma proteins

      • albumin

      • globulin

      • fibrinogen

  • serum - plasma without clotting proteins or fibrinogen


Functions of the immune system
Functions of the Immune System

  • To protect the entire body from a variety of harmful substances

    • pathogenic microorganisms

    • allergens

    • toxins

    • malignant cells


Structures of the immune system
Structures of the Immune System

  • Unlike other body systems, Immune System is NOT contained within a single set of organs or vessels

  • Action depends on structures from lymphatic, cardiovascular, and Integumentary systems

  • Works primarily through antigen-antibody reaction


Lymphatic system
Lymphatic System

  • Major structures

    • lymph vessels

    • lymph nodes

    • lymph fluid

    • tonsils

  • Also

    • spleen

    • thymus


Functions of the lymph system
Functions of the Lymph System

  • lymph/o

  • drain fluid from tissue spaces and return to it to the blood

  • transport materials (nutrients, hormones and oxygen) to body cells

  • carry away waste products to the blood

  • transport lipids away from digestive system

  • control of infection


Lymph system
Lymph System

  • Lymph originates in blood plasma

  • Interstitial fluid

  • cleans and nourishes body tissues

  • collects cellular debris, bacteria

  • return to blood or lymph capillaries


Lymph nodes
Lymph Nodes

  • located in lymph vessels

  • small round or oval structures (filters)

  • depositories for cellular debris

  • bacteria and debris phagocytized


Lymph nodes1
Lymph Nodes

  • inside are masses of tissue which contain WBCs (lymphocytes)

  • almost always grouped 2 or 3 to 100

  • invading cells destroyed in nodes and often swell as an indicator of the disease process


Spleen
Spleen

  • sac-like mass of lymphatic tissue

  • filter for lymph

  • phagocytic cells

  • hemolytic


Thymus
Thymus

  • lymphatic tissue

  • mediastinum

  • primary role: changes lymphocytes to T cells for cellular immunity


Tonsils
Tonsils

  • masses of lymph tissue designed to filter tissue fluid, not lymph

  • located beneath certain areas of moist epithelium exposed to outside and hence to contamination

  • any or all may become so loaded with bacteria that the pathogens gain dominance

  • should not be removed unless absolutely necessary.


Antigen antibody reactions
Antigen-Antibody Reactions

  • Antigen - any substance that the body regards as foreign (virus, bacterium, toxin)

  • Antibody - a disease fighting protein developed by the body in response to the presence of an antigen

  • Antigen-antibody reaction or immune reaction


Wbcs for immune reactions
WBCs for Immune Reactions

  • monocytes - type of lymphocytes

    • formed in bone marrow/transported where needed by body

    • become macrophages

  • macrophage - phagocytic cell that protects body by ingesting invading cells

  • lymphocytes - major class of WBCs

    • formed in lymphatic tissue


Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes

  • T cells or T Lymphocytes

    • mature in thymus gland

    • Cell mediated immunity

  • B cells or B Lymphocytes

    • mature in bone marrow

    • antibody-mediated immunity


T cell or t lymphocyte cell mediated immunity
T Cell or T Lymphocyte(Cell Mediated Immunity)

  • T Cell (cell mediated immunity)

    • circulating lymphocytes

    • produced in bone marrow

    • matures in thymus

    • live for years

    • primary function: coordinate immune defenses and kill organisms


Lymphocyte t cells
Lymphocyte: T Cells

  • helper T cells - essential to proper functioning of immune system

  • Memory cells- remember antigens and stimulate a faster response if same antigen introduced at a later time


Blood groups
Blood Groups

  • Four blood groups based on presence or absence of blood antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs

  • A - A antigen

  • B - B antigen

  • AB - both AB antigens

  • O - no AB antigens



Rh factor
Rh Factor

  • Rh factor is antigen present on RBC of 85% of pop. of US.

  • Rh positive and Rh negative

  • Rh neg pregnant woman may develop antibodies to the Rh protein of her Rh-positive fetus.

  • hemolytic disease of the newborn

  • prevented with RhoGAM


Immunity
Immunity

  • Immunity-state of being resistant or not susceptible to a specific disease

  • Acquired immunity-any form of immunity NOT present at birth and obtained during life



Anemias
Anemias

  • Oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced

  • symptom of disease

  • erythropenia

  • hypochromasia

  • hematocrit


Acquired immune deficiency syndrome aids
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

  • Caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

  • HIV infects T-helper cells with often a long incubation of up to 10 years

  • AIDS name applied during advanced stages of disease

  • After immune system destroyed, opportunistic infections occur.


Autoimmune disorders
Autoimmune Disorders

Antigens stimulate development of antibodies that are unable to distinguish antigens of internal cells.

Body makes antibodies and T cells against itself and attacks own tissues.

Multisystemic involvement.

Myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis


Edema
Edema

  • Hypoproteinemia

  • lowers osmotic pressure within blood

    • large amounts of plasma pass out of blood

  • poor lymph drainage

  • increased capillary permeability

  • congestive heart failure

  • localized edema, ascites


Hemophilia
Hemophilia

  • Hereditary blood clotting disorder

  • sex-linked, usually in men

  • lack factor VIII, essential for blood clotting

  • hematomas

  • hemarthrosis


Infectious mononucleosis
Infectious Mononucleosis

  • Acute infection caused by virus.

  • Fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, atypical lymphocytes, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, abnormal liver function, and bruising.

  • transmitted by droplet infection

  • Infection confers permanent immunity

  • Treatment symptomatic


Oncology the study of tumors
Oncology, the study of tumors

  • Metastasis, Metastasize

  • Carcinoma

    • Malignant Melanoma

    • Adenocarcinoma

  • Sarcoma (arises from bone, fat, muscle, etc.)

    • Osteocarcoma

    • Osteosarcoma

    • Myosarcoma

    • Myeloma


Leukemia
Leukemia

  • Major oncological disorder of blood-forming organs

  • malignant cells replace health bone marrow cells

  • acute myelogenous leukemia

  • acute lymphocytic leukemia


Hodgkin s disease
Hodgkin’s Disease

  • Malignant disorder

  • Painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue first evident in cervical lymph nodes; splenomegaly

  • Anorexia, weight loss, pruritus, anemia, leukocytosis


Kaposi s sarcoma
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

  • Malignancy associated with AIDS

  • lesions emerge as purplish-brown macules and develop into plaques and nodules


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