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Pace University School of Computer Science & Information Systems Emerging Information Technology II Spring 2005. Nanotechnology .

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nanotechnology

Pace University

School of Computer Science & Information Systems

Emerging Information Technology II

Spring 2005

Nanotechnology

Carl Abrams George Baker Godfrey Cheng Michael Homeyer

Emerging Information Technology II

agenda nanotechnology
Agenda - Nanotechnology
  • Introduction / Origins / Status
  • Current State of Technology
  • Manufacturing Processes
  • Commercial Activity
  • The Future

Emerging Information Technology II

nanotechnology3

Nanotechnology

Introduction / Origins / Status

nni definition of nanotechnology
NNI Definition of Nanotechnology

Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular

levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range,

to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale

and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and

functions because of their small and/or intermediate size.

Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the

nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and

architectures.

Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures

and components remains at the nanometer scale.

(National Nanotechnology Initiative)

Emerging Information Technology II

nano how big are we talking about
Nano - How big are we talking about?

Nanometers

Ten shoulder-to-shoulder hydrogen atoms span 1 nanometer. DNA molecules are about 2.5 nanometers wide.

A million

nanometers

The pinhead sized patch of this thumb is a million nanometers across.

Billions of

nanometers

A two meter tall male is two billion nanometers.

Thousands of

nanometers

Biological cells have diameters in the range of thousands of nanometers.

Less than a

nanometer

Individual atoms are up to a few tenths of a nanometer in diameter.

A human hair is approximately 100,000 nm.

Emerging Information Technology II

understanding effects
Understanding Effects

Physical processes do not scale uniformly

  • gravity
  • friction
  • combustion
  • electrostatic
  • van der Walls
  • brownian
  • quantum

Emerging Information Technology II

nano timeline
Nano Timeline
  • 1905: Einstein published paper estimating diameter of a sugar molecule as 1nanometer
  • 1959: Richard Feynman’s famed talk
  • 1981: Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) created
  • 1985: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) invented
  • 1993: Carbon Nanotubes discovered
  • 1998: First Single-Electron Transistor created
  • 2001: Nanowire ZnO laser
  • 2002: Superlattice Nanowires
  • 2004: Single-Electron Transistor with tiny mechanical arm

Emerging Information Technology II

richard feynman 1959
Richard Feynman, 1959
  • “The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.”
  • “The problems of chemistry and biology can be greatly helped if our ability to see what we’re doing, and to do things on an atomic level, is ultimately developed---a development which I think cannot be avoided.
  • http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/feynman.html

Emerging Information Technology II

nanotechnology two meanings
Nanotechnology - Two Meanings
  • Feynman’s vision of factories using nanomachines to build complex products, including additional nanomachines.
    • Ability to make large products with atomic precision, building them with superior materials, cleanly at low cost.
    • Original vision for nanotechnology is termed molecular manufacturing.
  • Products which have significant features less than 100 nanometers in size.
    • Can describe anything with small features, ranging from fine particles to thin coatings to large molecules.

Emerging Information Technology II

k eric drexler
K. Eric Drexler

“Development of the ability to design protein

molecules will open a path to the fabrication of

devices to complex atomic specifications (1981)”

Engines of Creation (1985)

  • THE FOUNDATIONS OF FORESIGHT
  • PROFILES OF THE POSSIBLE
  • DANGERS AND HOPES

Emerging Information Technology II

motivation towards nanotechnology
Device miniaturization by reducing their physical sizes

Exploiting enhanced surface effects by increased surface/volume ratio (e.g. catalysts)

Utilization of biological objects in inorganic nanostructures for various sensors and novel functions

Novel phenomena in low-dimensional structures

Direct observation of physics laws in nanostructures

Motivation towards Nanotechnology

Emerging Information Technology II

so who cares
So who cares?

“The worldwide annual industrial production in the

nanotech sectors is estimated to exceed $1 trillion in

10 - 15 years from now, which would require about 2

million nanotechnology workers.”

(M.C. Roco Chair, WH/NSTC/Nanoscale Science, Engineering and

Technology Subcommittee (NSEC), and Senior Advisor, NSF)

Emerging Information Technology II

where are we
Where Are We?
  • It’s NOT science fiction – it’s here today
  • Will affect almost everything over time
  • Initial impact will be subtle and gradual
  • R&D funding is unprecedented
    • Academic, government and industrial
  • Spread across globe
    • Patent filing exploding worldwide
  • Accelerated pace of development
    • Advances in tools will speed acceleration

Emerging Information Technology II

slide14

Context – Nanotechnology in the WorldGovernment investments 1997-2004

Note:

  • U.S. begins FY in October, six month before EU & Japan in March/April
  • U.S. does not have a commanding lead as it was for other S&T megatrends(such as BIO, IT, space exploration, nuclear)

(Senate Briefing, May 24, 2001 (M.C. Roco), updated on October, 12, 2002)

Emerging Information Technology II

national nanotechnology initiative intentions
National Nanotechnology Initiative - Intentions

(Source: AIChE Journal, 2004, Vol. 50 (5), MC Roco)

Emerging Information Technology II

nni where the money goes
NNI - Where the Money Goes

Biosystems at the Nanoscale ~ 14%

  • Biostructures, mimicry, bio-chips

Nanostructure ‘by Design’, Novel Phenomena 45%

  • Physical, biological, electronic, optical, magnetic

Device and System Architecture 20%

  • Interconnect, system integration, pathways

Environmental Processes 6 %

  • Filtering, absorption, low energy, low waste

Multiscale and Multiphenomena Modeling 9 %

Manufacturing at the nanoscale 6%

Education and Social Implications (distributed)

Emerging Information Technology II

key technologies
Key Technologies
  • Nanomaterial
    • Nanopowder
    • Nanotubes
    • Fullerenes
  • Detection and diagnosis devices
    • Nanopores
    • Quantum Dot
    • Dendrimers
  • Soft Lithography (Nano-imprinting, Dip-pen Lithography)

Emerging Information Technology II

patent landscape
Patent Landscape

Emerging Information Technology II

nanotechnology19

Nanotechnology

Current State of Technology

highlights
Highlights

Highlights of major accomplishments in past 15-20 years

Metrology: Measurements & images & motion can be controlled to 10 pico-meters. We can see what we’re doing.

Modeling: Software can now successfully model the dynamics of most molecular interactions under numerous static and dynamic conditions. We can simulate what we want to build.

Manufacturing: Certain processes exist to actually fabricate nanostructures. We can build some of what we want to build.

MEMS: Fabrication of micro-meter scale devices is routine. We can build much of what we want at larger scales.

Policy: There is a growing consensus of what nanotechnology is. We almost what we’re talking about.

Emerging Information Technology II

tools techniques
Tools & Techniques

Current foundation of research tools and techniques

  • Microscopy
    • Any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye. In classical light microscopy, this involves passing light transmitted through or reflected from the subject through a series of lenses, to be detected directly by the eye, imaged on a photographic plate or captured digitally. Electron microscopes are used to magnify very small details using electrons instead of light. Magnification levels of 500,000 times can be achieved with this technology.
  • Simulation
    • Environments must be developed that can accommodate the corresponding problem complexity and non-traditional device characteristics to be explored in the nanotechnolgy space. 1

(1) Le, J., Pileggi, L., Devgan, A., “Circuit Simulation of Nanotechnology Devices with Non-monotonic I-V Characteristics”, IEEE, 2003

Emerging Information Technology II

tools techniques cont d
Tools & Techniques (cont’d)

Current foundation of research tools and techniques

  • Metrology
    • Simply put, metrology is the measurement of something, be it large or be it small.
  • Interferometry
    • The applied science of combining two or more input points of a particular data type, such as optical measurements, to form a greater picture based on the combination of the two sources. 1
  • Crystallography
    • The experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. Crystallographic methods all rely on the analysis of the diffraction patterns that emerge from a sample that is targeted by a beam of some type. 2

(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometry

(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallography

Emerging Information Technology II

microscopy
Microscopy

Current foundation of research tools and techniques

  • Microscopy
    • Acoustic / Ultrasonic
      • Sound waves are used to image samples, permitting a view beneath the surface
    • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
      • Produces a 3D-type image. This is useful for judging the surface of a structure.
    • Scanning Probe / Atomic Force (SPM / AFM)
      • Generally used to sample the surface height of a specimen at discrete positions and forming a grid based upon the readings. The grid can be reviewed off-line as a 3D surface. The AFM can actually be pushed down on the surface of the specimen and modify it.
    • Transmission Electron Microcope (TEM)
      • Electrons are used to produce a specimen image on a fluorescent screen or on film.

Emerging Information Technology II

simulation
Simulation

Current foundation of research tools and techniques

  • Simulation
    • Molecular modeling
      • Varies from building and visualizing molecules to performing complex calculations on molecular systems. Using molecular modeling scientists will be better able to design new and more potent drugs. Molecular modeling not only has the potential to bring new drugs to the market, but a vast array of new materials.
    • Quantum effect modeling
      • The paradoxical influence of quantum mechanics dominates at the nano-level. In the weird world of quantum mechanics, objects can exist simultaneously in mutually exclusive states, but with a certain probability that one state or another will apply at a given moment. Measuring quantum effects in real-world objects is an important steppingstone toward building quantum computers. The ability for information to exist in multiple states at once is what would make a quantum computer so powerful. 1

(1) http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/031120/quantum.shtml

Emerging Information Technology II

metrology
Metrology

Current foundation of research tools and techniques

  • Metrology
    • Film Thickness Testers
      • The thickness of films can be routinely measured down to about 2 nm. A full spectrum of instruments is marketed for thin film analysis.
      • Thin file is important in micro and nano-scale electronics and nonlinear optics devices. Its characteristic properties are high thermal stability, reliable mechanical strength, and low dielectric constant.
    • Wafer Inspection Tools
      • Wafers must be inspected for level of contamination. Process improvement techniques have been introduced to identify exactly where in the manufacturing process defects over acceptable limits are being introduced. 1

(1) http://www.future-fab.com/documents.asp?grID=216&d_ID=1250

Emerging Information Technology II

interferometry
Interferometry

Current foundation of research tools and techniques

  • Interferometry
    • Optical
      • Some optical phenomena depend on the quantum nature of light and as such some areas of optics are also related to quantum mechanics. 1
    • X-ray
      • uses the interference of two x-ray beams to precisely measure optical constants, or (by moving components of the interferometer) to measure displacement with picometer precision. 2

(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical

(2) http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div842/Gp5/admd.htm

Emerging Information Technology II

crystallography
Crystallography

Current foundation of research tools and techniques

  • Crystallography
    • X-ray
      • An experimental technique that exploits the fact that X-rays are diffracted by crystals. It is not an imaging technique. X-rays have the proper wavelength to be scattered by the electron cloud of an atom of comparable size. 1
      • X-ray crystallography remains the "gold standard" for structure determination. 2

(1) http://www-structure.llnl.gov/Xray/101index.html

(2) http://www.imm.org/Reports/Rep002.html#XrayPhase

Emerging Information Technology II

recent accomplishments
Recent Accomplishments
  • Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid
  • Superfine Ink-Jet Printing
  • Drug Delivery

Emerging Information Technology II

recursive nanobox processor grid
Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid

Recent Accomplishments

  • Nano devices less reliable than CMOS devices
  • Parallel computer system design
  • High accuracy rates
  • Low FIT (failure in time) rates

KleinOsowski, A.J., KleinOsowski, K., Rangarajan, V., “The RecursiveBox Processor Grid: A Reliable System Architecture for Unreliable Nano Devices”, IEEE, 2004

Emerging Information Technology II

superfine ink jet printing
Superfine Ink-Jet Printing

Recent Accomplishments

  • Produces dots less than 1 micron in size
  • Uses metal nano-particle paste
  • Printing of metallic wires a few microns in width
  • Pre-patterning of the substrate not necessary

Murata, K. “Super-fine ink-jet printing for nanotechnology”, IEEE, 2003

Emerging Information Technology II

drug delivery
Drug Delivery

Recent Accomplishments

  • Side effects of conventional drugs
  • Nanoparticles are the ideal vehicle
  • AZT nanoparticle drug delivery system

Lobenberg, R., “Smart Materials: Applications of Nanotechnolgy in Drug Delivery and Drug Targeting”, IEEE, 2003

Emerging Information Technology II

nanotechnology32

Nanotechnology

Manufacturing Processes

the nni vision
The NNI Vision

“The essence of nanotechnolgoy is the ability to work at the molecular level…to create large structures with fundamentally new molecular organization”

Ref:” National Nanotechnology Initiative”: The Initiative and its Implementation Plan” http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/nano/nnl2.htm

Emerging Information Technology II

the nni goals
The NNI Goals
  • First Generation: passive nanostructures in coatings, nanoparticles, bulk materials (nano-structured metals, polymers, ceramics): ~ 2001 –
  • Second Generation: active nanostructures such as transistors, amplifiers, actuators, adaptive structures: ~ 2005 –
  • Third Generation: 3D nanosystems with heterogeneous nano-components and various assembling techniques ~ 2010 –
  • Fourth Generation: molecular nano-systems with heterogeneous molecules, based on bio-mimetics and new design ~ 2020 (?)

Source: AIChE Journal, 2004, Vol. 50 (5), MC Roco

Emerging Information Technology II

nano fabrication approaches
Nano Fabrication Approaches

Top-down Method(Today)

Creates nanostructures out of macrostructures by breaking down matter into more basic building blocks. Frequently uses chemical or thermal methods.

Bottom-up Method(Tomorrow)

Building complex systems by combining simple atomic level components through

self assembly of atoms or molecules into nanostructures

Emerging Information Technology II

a timeline for molecular manufacturing
A Timeline for Molecular Manufacturing

Molecular Traditional

DNA Templated Carbon Nano Tube Field Effect Transistor Science vol 32 21 Nov 2003

2001

2005

2010

2020

Emerging Information Technology II

first generation nano fabrication example
First Generation Nano Fabrication Example

Single Walled NanoTube

SWNT are grown by CO decomposition into C and CO2 at 700-950C in a flow of pure CO at between 1-10atm of pressure

http://www.pa.msu.edu/cmp/csc/nanotube.html

Emerging Information Technology II

other contemporary production processes
Other Contemporary Production Processes
  • Vapor Deposition
  • Evaporization
  • Combustion
  • Thermal Plasma
  • Milling
  • Cavitation
  • Milling (Spin or Dip)
  • Thermal Spray
  • Electrodeposition

Emerging Information Technology II

other contemporary production processes39
Other Contemporary Production Processes

Emerging Information Technology II

other contemporary production processes40
Other Contemporary Production Processes

Emerging Information Technology II

the 3 rd 4 th generation nanofactory
The 3rd/4th Generation Nanofactory
  • Integrate large numbers of nanoscale chemical fabrication units
  • Combine nanoscale pieces into large-scale products
  • General-purpose manufacturing in a tabletop format
  • Extremely advanced products with compact functionality
  • Produce its own weight in hours; produce copies of itself

Emerging Information Technology II

how might it work
How Might it Work??
  • mass < 1 kg (with a less hefty design than suggested by the above illustration)
  • volume ~ 50 liters
  • raw material input 2.5 kg/hr (chiefly acetone, oxygen from air)
  • waste heat output 1.3 kW (air cooled)
  • surplus power output 3.3 kW (from oxidation of surplus hydrogen)
  • waste material output 1.5 kg/hr (chiefly water)
  • product output 1 kg/hr (chiefly diamond)

Emerging Information Technology II

how might it work43
How Might it Work??
  • a casing to protect its interior from air, moisture, and dirt
  • inlets for liquid feedstocks to supply molecules for processing
  • molecular sorting mechanisms to purify inputs
  • alignment and binding mechanisms to organize streams of molecules
  • mechanosynthetic devices to process inputs into reactive tools
  • mechanosynthetic devices to apply tools to workpieces
  • mill-style mechanisms to join workpieces into larger blocks
  • programmable mechanisms to join blocks into complex products
  • a port to deliver finished products while protecting the interior space
  • motors to drive moving parts
  • computers to control material flows and assembly mechanisms
  • stored data and programs to direct the computers
  • data communication channels to coordination actions
  • electrical systems to distribute power
  • a cooling system to dissipate waste heat
  • a structural framework to support the casing and internal components

Emerging Information Technology II

a path to implementation
A Path to Implementation
  • The key concept is that of a “Fabricator”
    • A Fabricator is a nano-scale device that can combine individual molecules into useful shapes
    • Fabricators build “pieces” that are passed to other fabricators to be made into larger pieces (convergent assembly)
  • Fabricators would make a small nano factories with a few fabricators in it and then build a bigger one etc etc.
  • By simple scaling a nano factory could make a factory twice its size in a day. In 60 days a desk top model would exist

Emerging Information Technology II

a path to implementation continued
A Path to Implementation (continued)
  • Inside the factory, each fabricator would make a nano block (200 nm on a side)
  • Assembly of nano-blocks by robotics through commands and fasteners on the surface of the blocks.
  • Continue until done
  • Output : e.g. rolls of tough, flexible, high efficiency solar cells to laptops with billions of processors

Emerging Information Technology II

nanotechnology46

Nanotechnology

Commercial Activity

timeline for beginning of industrial prototyping and commercialization
Timeline for beginning of industrialprototyping and commercialization
  • 1st Generation: Passive nanostructures ~ 2001

Ex: coatings, nanoparticles, nanostructured metals, polymers, ceramics

  • 2nd Generation: Active nanostructures ~ 2005

Ex: transistors, amplifiers, targeted drugs, actuators, adaptive structures

  • 3rd Generation: Systems of nanosystems ~ 2010

Ex: guided molecular assembling; 3D networking and new system architectures, robotics, supramolecular

  • 4th Generation: Molecular nanosystems ~ 2020

Ex: molecules as devices/components ‘by design’, based on atomic design, hierarchical emerging functions, evolutionary systems

Source: AIChE Journal, 2004, Vol. 50 (5), MC Roco

Emerging Information Technology II

industry surveys
Industry Surveys

Note:

http://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/nano/reports/nni_04-1012_ehsi_roco@buxton.pdf

Emerging Information Technology II

major corporations in nanotechnology
Major Corporations in Nanotechnology

Emerging Information Technology II

how nanotechnology enable new applications
How nanotechnology enable new applications
  • As things approach the nanoscale, new properties emerge due to size confinement, quantum phenomena, and coulomb blockage. These new properties can be controlled to give us materials with new applications. Specifically, nanotechnology will permit control of the following
    • Structural properties (e.g. strength and ductility)
    • Electrical properties
    • Magnetic properties
    • Catalytic properties
    • Thermal properties
    • Optical properties
    • Biocompatibility

Emerging Information Technology II

the nanotechnology space
The Nanotechnology Space

Smart Drugs

Information Technology

Life Sciences

Smart Materials

Materials

Biomaterials

Tools

Emerging Information Technology II

nanoparticles enabled applications
Nanoparticles enabled Applications

Richard Brotzman

Nanophase Technologies Corporation

Emerging Information Technology II

materials and industrial chemistry
Materials and Industrial Chemistry
  • Nanocomposites
  • Nanocrystals
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanostructured Materials
  • Nanocatalysts
  • Nanofilters

Emerging Information Technology II

nanocomposites
Nanocomposites
  • Nanomaterials often have different properties than their bulk-scale counterparts
    • - nanocrystalline copper is five times harder than ordinary copper
  • Nanocomposites are materials where the constituents are mixed on a nanometer scale
    • A nanoscale dispersion of sheet-like inorganic silicate particles in a polymer matrix is superior to either constituent in such properties as optical clarity, strength, stiffness, thermal stability, reduced permeability, and flame retardency.
  • Types
    • plastics
    • foams
    • aerogels
    • powders
    • membranes
    • coatings
    • films
    • catalysts
    • semiconductors
    • magnets
    • etc.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanocomposites55
Nanocomposites
  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed process to make sponge-like silica latch onto toxic metals in water. Used for lead or mercury removal containment.
  • Plastic nanocomposite is used by GM and Toyota. It is scratch-resistant, light-weight, rust-proof and strong.
  • Electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite material used to build military and commercial aerospace components. It is highly electrically conductive, yet remarkably flexible.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanocomposite coatings
Nanocomposite Coatings
  • Wilson’s Double Core tennis balls have nanocomposite coating for higher durability.
  • Nanoledge uses carbon nanotubes to make tennis racket for strength.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanocrystals
Nanocrystals
  • Nanocrystals of various metals 2 to 4 times harder than their bulk form. “Metal nanocrystals might be incorporated into car bumpers, making the parts stronger, or into aluminum, making it more wear resistant. Metal nanocrystals might be used to produce bearings that last longer than their conventional counterparts, new types of sensors and components for computers and electronic hardware.”

http://news.uns.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/020816.Chandrasekar.nano.html

Emerging Information Technology II

nanocrystals cont
Nanocrystals (cont.)
  • Nanocrystals absorb and re-emit the light in different color.
  • Nanocrystals absorb sunlight more strongly than dye molecules.
  • Fluroescent nanocrystals are incredibly bright and do not photodegrade.
  • Drug-conjugated nanocrystals attach to protein which enable protein tracking.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanoparticles
Nanoparticles
  • Nano fibers used as stain-repellent on clothing.
  • Polymer dispersion products containing nano polymer particles used in exterior paints, coatings and adhesives.
  • Many vitamins and their precursors, such as carotinoids, are insoluble in water. Formulated as nanoparticles make them easily mixed with water and increase their bio-availability in human body.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanoparticles cont
Nanoparticles (cont.)
  • UV absorbers based on nanoparticulate zinc oxide used in sun creams.
  • Aluminum nanoparticles are used in rocket propellants that burn at double the rate.
  • Copper nanoparticles used in automotive lubricant to reduce engine wear.
  • Nanoparticulate-based synthetic bone (calcium and phoshpate nanoparticles) produced by AngstroMedica.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanostructured materials
Nanostructured Materials
  • Nanodyne makes a tungsten-carbide-cobalt composite powder that is used to make a sintered alloy as hard as diamond. Used to make cutting tools, drill bits, armor plate and jet engine parts, etc.
  • Kodak produced organic light emitting diodes (OLED) color screens made of nanostructured plymer films for thin, flexible and low power consuming dislplays on cameras, PDAs, laptops, TV, etc.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanocatalysts
Nanocatalysts
  • Gel-based nanoscale catalyst is used to improve efficiency and reduces the cost in the process of liquifying coal and turning it into gas. (Hydrocarbon Technologies)
  • Used in catalytic converters. Nano particle has high surface to mass ratio.

Emerging Information Technology II

nanofilters
Nanofilters
  • Nanofiltration products made of nano size alumia fiber is capable of filtering the smallest of particles. Useful for sterilization of biological, pharmaceutical and medical serum, etc.
  • Air filters for NASA space flight that screen viruses like SARS built by US Global Nanospace, Inc. - TX

Emerging Information Technology II

nano products in it
Nano products in IT
  • Nanotubes – tiny cylinders. In the presence of an electrical current, nanotubes can be made to fire off electrons. E.g. Samsung plans to use nanotubes to build LCD display that would cost less and use less power.
  • Nanoscale – Dip-pen Nanolithography, a new approach for the fabrication of patterned nanostructures such as electronic circuits.
  • Molecular Electronics – Nanowire interconnects.

Emerging Information Technology II

ibm millipede
IBM Millipede

200,000,000,000 bits/inch2

10 nm

Emerging Information Technology II

ibm millipede66
IBM Millipede
  • Nanomechanical approach for data storage
  • Built out of silicon with legs a few nanometers across, rest on a polymer surface. When stimulated with a pulse of electricity, it makes a tiny dent. The device could record or read information at 1 Gbps

Emerging Information Technology II

all microchips will be nanoscale devices
All Microchips Will Be Nanoscale Devices

CONCLUSION: The semiconductor industry already has a large effort underway for producing devices whose minimum design features are 100nm. It is only a matter of time before nearly all chips are nanotech devices. Hence, there is substantial value in synchronizing the large research effort already funded by industry & driven by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), with the large research effort expected to be funded worldwide.

Emerging Information Technology II

Semiconductor Research Corporation

nanotechnology68

Nanotechnology

The Future

the future
The Future

Intel will be manufacturing devices by 2007 with feature sizes about 20 nanometers across.

A red blood cell is on the order of 10,000 nanometers across.

In 2 dimensions we could stack about 250,000 components in the same space as a red blood cell.

If the trends continue as far as 2017, which may be the end-point of “Moore’s Law” we could be looking at

a manufactured device the size of a red blood cell with 256,000,000 components.

If we add the third dimension, that could translate into 65,536,000,000,000,000

components.

Somewhere along the way, we’re talking about the raw technical capability to produce a rather

sophisticated robot small enough to wander around through your body doing whatever it has been

programmed to do.

If we make the robot 1/10,000th the volume of a red blood cell, we’re still talking about 655,360,000

components, which is arguably perhaps enough to embody this machine with the ability to think, move,

and do whatever we have programmed it to do.

Emerging Information Technology II

the future fundamental technologies need
The Future – Fundamental Technologies Need
  • Power Systems – allow machine to do something
  • Locomotion Systems – provide mobility
  • Control Systems – where to go, when to stop
  • Sensor Systems – where is it, how its going to get from where it is to where it wants to be
  • Actuator Systems – something that actually does something
  • Disposal Systems – if machine ever breaks, to get rid of it

Emerging Information Technology II

the future macro world examples
The Future – Macro World Examples
  • Power Systems - batteries, thermoelectric, solar, steam, adenosine triphosphate, brownian motors (dramatic reduction in size and power consumption, + 60%)
  • Locomotion Systems – legs, wings, rockets, tails
  • Control Systems – micro processor, analog control, qubit
  • Sensor Systems– vision, chemical gradient, atomic force
  • Actuator Systems– erosion, genetic, assembler
  • Disposal Systems – taggant, biodegradation, scavenging

Emerging Information Technology II

the future72
The Future
  • Computing(Kurzweil/Moore)
  • Life Sciences (Human vs. machine distinction?)
  • Manufacturing (Cost, Grey Goo/Blue Goo)
  • Aerospace and Defense (Smart Dust)

Emerging Information Technology II

big future for nano
BIG Future For NANO

“If nano research is the Mt. Everest, we have

barely reached the base camp!” (Charles Lieber)

“If Einstein were looking for a career path today,

His advisor would tell him to think small: nanotech,

Albert, nanotech” (Gary Stix)

“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable

from magic.” (Arthur Clark)

Emerging Information Technology II

question
Question

Is nanotechnology a natural evolution of

technology or a disruptive technology (e.g.

Industrial revolution and computer revolution)?

Emerging Information Technology II

nanotechnology class readings
Nanotechnology – Class Readings
  • Feyman, Richard P., There’s Plenty of room at the Bottom”, American Physical Society Annual Meeting, Caltech, December 1959, http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html.
  • Drexler, Eric, “Engines of Creation – The Coming Era of Nanotechnology”, Chapter 1, Anchor Books,1986.
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Emerging Information Technology II