12. Prohibition • Aim: To describe the causes and consequences of Prohibition. • Key words:18th Amendment, Volstead, liquor, Women’s Christian Temperance Union, • Anti-Saloon League, moonshine, speakeasies, bootleggers, protection rackets, • Al Capone. Starter: What problems can you see in the pictures above? How would you solve them?
Ban alcohol? What would be the advantages and disadvantages of banning alcohol?
In 1919 the 18th Amendment made the making, selling or transporting of alcoholillegal. This was known as prohibition and it lasted from 1920-33. It was referred to as the ‘noble’ experiment. The Volstead Act brought this into force in January 1920. This defined any alcoholic drink as any drink that was more than 0.5%alcohol. Moves against alcohol had started in the late 19th century, with groups such as the Women’s Christian Temperance Unionand the Anti-Saloon League campaigning against alcohol. Support for prohibition increased in the early 20th century. Why do you think prohibition was introduced?
Scan through pages 67&68 of Ferriby et al and find three reasons for prohibition. Extension: What does the poster suggest about attitudes to prohibition? Poster issued by the Anti-Saloon League in 1910. Around the poster are the words:"Daddy's in there. Our shoes, and stockings and clothes and food are in there, too, and they'll never come out.” What arguments were put forward in favour of prohibition? Which organisations put forward those arguments?
Drinking was seen as: • Detrimental to the economy • Ruining family life • Unpatriotic • Having a negative effect on society What were the intended effects of prohibition? What do you think the actual effects were?
Use p164-165 of D Clare to find the effects of prohibition. Write a detailed sentence to explain each consequence. Moonshine: Speakeasies: PROHIBITION Bootleggers: Organised Crime: Extension: Why was prohibition difficult to enforce?
4000 Prohibition agents were employed by the Prohibition Bureau to raid speakeasies and arrest those involved in the illegal sale of alcohol. IzzyEinstein, Moe Smith & Elliot Ness were the most well known.. An official government photograph. Extension: How useful is this photo for finding out about the success of prohibition?
Organised Crime: A consequence of Prohibition .Key words: Al Capone, protection rackets, Chicago. “I make my money by supplying a public demand. If I break the law, my customers who number hundreds of the best people in Chicago, are as guilty as I am. The only difference is that I sell and they buy. Everybody calls me a racketeer. I call myself a businessman” Al Capone’s description of his business. Study the two sources. What do they suggest about Al Capone?
Prohibition drove drinking ‘underground’ into speakeasies and crime thrived. • Many people were prepared to break the law to have a drink. Using p165 of D Clare, answer the following questions: Where did Al Capone operate? Approximately, how many men did Capone have working for him? What kind of activity (criminal and legal) was Capone involved in? Why was Capone able to have a lot of influence and not get caught easily? What happened during the St Valentine’s Day massacre of 1929? What was Capone finally imprisoned for? Extension: How did Capone try and portray himself?
Amendment • Agents • Gangsters • Bribery • 200 000 • Absenteeism 5 000 • Christian • Social problems • bootleggers • Volstead • Valentines • Depression • Disguise • Speakeasies