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Other Movements in the Civil Rights Era. Malcolm X, Nation of Islam, Black Panther Party. Civil Rights Groups Began to Drift Apart Impatient for other areas of segregation to end Northern Issues De Facto Segregation (by custom) vs. De Jure Segregation (by law)

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Other Movements in the Civil Rights Era

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other movements in the civil rights era

Other Movements in the Civil Rights Era

Malcolm X, Nation of Islam, Black Panther Party

civil rights begins to shift

Civil Rights Groups Began to Drift Apart

  • Impatient for other areas of segregation to end
  • Northern Issues
    • De Facto Segregation (by custom) vs. De Jure Segregation (by law)
    • Harder to convince whites to share economic and social power than a bus or lunch seat
    • African Americans living in poverty in North cities
  • Violence with Police
    • Led to many riots, including WATTS RIOTs in LA
Civil Rights Begins to Shift
malcolm x

Controversial human rights and African American rights activist in 50’s & 60’s

  • Troubled youth, arrested at age 20, became a member of Nation of Islam
  • Beliefs changed over course of his life
Malcolm X
nation of islam

A black nationalist religious organization

  • Led by Elijah Muhammad
  • Advocated on behalf of African-Americans
  • Had significant disagreements with the Civil Rights Movement:
    • Civil Rights Movement advocated:
      • integration and against segregation
      • One goal was to end disfranchisement of African-Americans
    • Nation of Islam:
      • favored separatism
      • forbade its members from participating in the political process
  • Malcolm X would leave in 1964
Nation of Islam
beliefs while in nation of islam

Philosophy known almost entirely from speeches/interviews

    • White people were the devil
    • Islam was the "true religion of black mankind“
    • Advocated the complete separation of African Americans
    • Rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence
    • Advocated that black people should protect themselves by any necessary means
  • Unclear if speeches reflect his beliefs or that of Mohammad
Beliefs while in Nation of Islam
the ballot or the bullet speech

April 3, 1964

  • Shows his separation from Nation of Islam
    • Encouraging voting
    • No distinction between Islam and Christianity
  • Exercise right to vote, but may be necessary to take up arms if gov. prevents full equality
  • Argued need for African Americans to govern their own community
The Ballot or the Bullet Speech
malcolm x s independent views

Became willing to work with leaders of the civil rights movement

  • Civil rights should be HUMAN RIGHTS
  • Defend themselves and secure rights “by whatever means necessary.”
  • Criticized capitalism
  • Continued to advocate black nationalism, not separation
  • During pilgrimage to Mecca, wrote that his experiences there with white people convinced him to "rearrange" his thinking about race and "toss aside some of [his] previous conclusions".
Malcolm X’s Independent Views

Listening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.

Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant—the one who wanted to help the [Black] Muslims and the whites get together—and I told her there wasn't a ghost of a chance and she went away crying? Well, I've lived to regret that incident. In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie then—like all [Black] Muslims—I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years.

That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those days—I'm glad to be free of them.

1965 conversation with Gordon Parks

malcolm x s legacy

Assassinated by 3 members of Nation of Islam in 1965

  • To his admirers:
    • courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans
    • indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans.
  • To Detractors:
    • accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, anti-Semitism, and violence
  • He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
Malcolm X’s legacy
black power

Following James Meredith’s failed attempt at “March against fear”, MLK attempted to lead a group to complete his march

  • Marchers shouted ideas similar to Malcolm X
  • “We Shall Overcome” turned to “We Shall Overrun”
Black Power
black power1

After SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael was arrested and beated, spoke before a shocked crowd:

    • “This is the 27th time I have been arrested – and I ain’t going to jail no more! We have been saying freedom for six years – and we ain’t got nothing’. What we’re gonna start saying now is BLACK POWER.”
  • Slogan was shunned by King and other leaders who feared it would cause violence
  • SNCC encouraged by Carmichael to reject white membership and focus on developing African American pride.
Black Power
the black panther party

Founded in Oakland, CA

  • Political Party to fight against police brutality in the ghettos
  • Advocated a political platform known as the 10 Point Platform
  • Members wore green beret, sunglasses, black leather jackets, black trousers and shoes
  • Preached arm revolt – “Power Flows out of the barrel of a gun”
The Black Panther Party