Lecture 19 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Lecture 19

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  1. Lecture 19 - Inheritance (Contd)

  2. Using inheritance Constructor? ** ‘IS-A’ relationship

  3. Using inheritance • define one superclass: Item • define subclasses: Video and CD • the superclass defines common attributes • the subclasses inherit the superclass attributes • the subclasses add own attributes

  4. First, we had: public void addCD(CD theCD) public void addVideo(Video theVideo) Now, we have: public void addItem(Item theItem) Subtitution • Objects of subclasses can be used where objects of supertypes are required.(This is called substitution .)

  5. New Database source code public class Database { private ArrayList items; /** * Construct an empty Database. */ public Database() { items = new ArrayList(); } /** * Add an item to the database. */ public void addItem(Item theItem) { items.add(theItem); } ... } avoids code duplication in client!

  6. /** * Print a list of all currently stored CDs and * videos to the text terminal. */ public void list() { for(Iterator iter = items.iterator(); iter.hasNext(); ) { Item item = (Item)iter.next(); item.print(); System.out.println(); // empty line between items } } New Database source code

  7. Itemi1 = new Item(); Itemi2 = new CD(); Item i3 = new Video(); Assignment // Illegal Assignments * CD c1 = new Item(); CD c2 = new Video(); subclass objects may be assigned to superclass variables (Substitution)

  8. Casting and Assignment Item anItem1; //superclass CD cd1; //subclass cd1 = new CD (); anItem1 = cd1; // subtype object can be assigned to the supertype - substitution Item anItem2; CD cd2; anItem = new CD(); cd2 = (CD) anItem; // ok superclass object can be assigned to subtype with a cast Video v1; CD cd3; cd3 = new CD(); v1 = cd3; //error – compile time … (compilation error) Item anItem3 = cd3; v1 = (Video) anItem3; // will compile, but runtime error

  9. DoMe Example (contd)

  10. Using inheritance

  11. The problem • The print method in Item only prints the common fields. • Inheritance is a one-way street: • A subclass inherits the superclass fields. • The superclass knows nothing about its subclass’s fields.

  12. Attempting to solve the problem • Place print where it has access to the information it needs. • Each subclass has its own version. • But Item’s fields are private.

  13. /** * Print a list of all currently stored CDs and * videos to the text terminal. */ public void list() { for(Iterator iter = items.iterator(); iter.hasNext(); ) { Item item = (Item)iter.next(); item.print(); System.out.println(); // empty line between items } } New Database source code No print method in Item: Code won’t compile

  14. Static type and dynamic type • A more complex type hierarchy requires further concepts to describe it. • Some new terminology: • static type • dynamic type • method dispatch/lookup

  15. Static and dynamic type • The declared type of a variable is its static type. • The type of the object a variable refers to is its dynamic type. • The compiler’s job is to check for static-type violations.

  16. Overriding: the solution print method in both super- and subclasses. Satisfies both static and dynamic type checking.

  17. Overriding • Superclass and subclass define methods with the same signature. • Each has access to the fields of its class. • Superclass satisfies static type check. • Subclass method is called at runtime – it overrides the superclass version. • What becomes of the superclass version?

  18. Method lookup No inheritance or polymorphism. The obvious method is selected.

  19. Method lookup Inheritance but no overriding. The inheritance hierarchy is ascended, searching for a match.

  20. Method lookup Polymorphism and overriding. The ‘first’ version found is used.

  21. Method lookup summary • The object stored in the variable is found. • The class of the object is found. • The class is searched for a method match. • If no match is found, the superclass is searched. • This is repeated until a match is found, or the class hierarchy is exhausted. • Overriding methods take precedence.

  22. Super call in methods • Overridden methods are hidden ... • ... but we often still want to be able to call them. • An overridden method can be called from the method that overrides it. • super.method(...) • Compare with the use of super in constructors.

  23. Calling an overridden method public class CD { ... public void print() { super.print(); System.out.println(" " + artist); System.out.println(" tracks: " + numberOfTracks); } ... }

  24. Method polymorphism • We have been discussing polymorphic method dispatch. • A polymorphic variable can store objects of varying types. • Method calls are polymorphic. • The actual method called depends on the dynamic object type.

  25. Review • The declared type of a variable is its static type. • Compilers check static types. • The type of an object is its dynamic type. • Dynamic types are used at runtime. • Methods may be overridden in a subclass. • Method lookup starts with the dynamic type. • Protected access supports inheritance.