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History of Life on Earth

History of Life on Earth

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History of Life on Earth

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  1. History of Life on Earth

  2. Understanding Time and Life Evidence for the Universe and Space-time

  3. Time we understand… • Age of the bacteria in my throat: ~.0082 years • Age of you: ~15 years • Age of a Galapagos tortoise: ~170 years • Age of a Bristlecone Pine Tree: ~10,000 years

  4. Deep Time • Age of the Earth: ~4,540,000,000 years • Evidence: Zircon Crystals • Age of the Universe: ~13,798,000,000 years • Evidence: Microwave Background Radiation

  5. Extant Life on Earth • ~10 million species inhabit Earth today

  6. Extinct Life on Earth

  7. Fossils show the past events • Fossil: • Preserved remains/traces of an organism from the past • Records of past life and change over time • Age of a fossil: • Radiometric dating determines the age of the rock • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ClJ5lwl_wM0

  8. What is a fossil? • Law of Superposition • Earth is made of layers of rock with the bottom layers being the oldest, upper layers being the youngest • What does that tell us about the fossils we find in those rock layers?

  9. History of Life on Earth Precambrian Era

  10. Major Event: Planet Earth Forms • ~4.6 bya: • Planet Earth forms from solar system collisions • Physics, chemistry & geology everywhere • Earth looks much different than today! • No Water • No Oxygen • No Life • No fun

  11. Major Event: Planet Earth Cools • ~4.6 – 3.8 bya: • Rocks cool & oceans form • Evidence: asteroids, comets, meteors, computer models

  12. Major Event: Prokaryotic Organisms • ~3.8 – 3.5bya: • Cyanobacteria exists & produces oxygen • Evidence: Stromatolite fossils (at field museum)

  13. Major Event: Eukaryotic Organisms • ~2.1bya: • Complex cells with organelles exist • Evidence: fossils, endosymbiosis theory

  14. Major Event: Multicellular Life • ~1.5bya: • Multicellular life exists • Evidence: fossils, colonial flagellate hypothesis

  15. History of Life on Earth Cambrian to Present

  16. Major Event: Animals Diversify • ~530mya: • Animals exist during the Cambrian Period • Evidence: burgess shale fossils (see field museum) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S_NPj55hcXQ

  17. Major Event: Mass Extinction • ~450 mya: Ordovician Extinction • 90% of all species died • Major glacial event

  18. Major Event: Fish Diversify • ~420 mya: • Fish exist in Earth’s oceans • Evidence: fossils

  19. Major Event: Organisms on Land • ~400mya: • Land plants, fungi, & insects exist • ~375mya: Tiktaalik exists • 1st terrestrial tetrapod • Amphibians & Reptiles exist

  20. Major Event: Mass Extinction • ~250mya: The Great Dying • 96% of all species died • Asteroids & Volcanoes

  21. Major Event: Reptiles Diversify • ~200mya: • Dinosaurs dominate Earth, small mammals exist • ~150mya: • Birds exist

  22. Major Event: Mass Extinction • ~65mya: K/T Extinction • 75% of all species died • Giant asteroid slammed into Mexico

  23. Major Event: Mammals Diversify • ~65mya – 2mya • No more dinosaurs!

  24. Major Event: Humans dominate • ~1,000,000 years ago: Homo sapiens exist • Happily ever after…

  25. Major Event: Mass Extinction • TODAY!!! • Up to 140,000 species go extinct each year • Habitat Destruction, Hunting, Pollution…

  26. Critically Endangered Species