Historical Trauma & Family Engagement Strategies. For Educators & Families . OBJECTIVES . Become acquainted with the boarding school era & the history of Indian Education. Understand the impact of Historical Trauma on student learning.
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For Educators & Families
Christopher Columbus arrived in the Caribbean on October 12th 1492 to encounter a diverse Indigenous population. Columbus had an uncontrollable lust for gold. He enslaved thousands of Taino people, launching an insidious genocidal ideology in North America.
“…they were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features....They would make fine servants....With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.“
By 1496, 4 million Indigenous people had died by slavery, torture, murder, disease, and terrorism.
By 1535, an entire culture was decimated. An estimated 8-10 million people dead.
"The destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world."
~David E. Stannard.
The systematic killing of all the people from a national, ethnic, or religious group, or an attempt to do this.
Cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma.
- Dr. Maria YellowHorse-BraveHeart
1616 – Smallpox decimates Native population in New England
1831 – Supreme Court Case between Cherokee Nations vs. Georgia
1851 – Fort Laramie Treaties were signed
1853 – Extermination of tribes in California
1862 – 38 Dakota hung in Mankato
1876 – Battle of Little Big Horn
1877 – U.S. Govt. seized the Black Hills in violation of treaty agreement
1887 – Dawes (Allotment) Act
1889 – Ghost Dance Movement begins
1890 – Over 300 Lakota were massacred at Wounded Knee, South Dakota
1893 – Boarding School Policy
1917 – More than 17,000 Indians enlist in military during WWI
1924 – American Indians are granted citizenship
1928 – Meriam Report published illustrating dire situation of Indians
1934 – Johnson O’Malley Act established
1944 – National Congress of American Indians established
1953 – Termination & Relocation Era
1968 – American Indian Movement & Women of All Red Nations
1972 – Indian Education Act
1978 – Indian Child Welfare Act
1978 – Indian Religious Freedom Act
1990 – Native Language Act
1996 – Clinton declares Nov. National American Indian Heritage Month
1996 – Colbell vs. Salazar was filed
2005 – Red Lake School Shooting
2006 – Minneapolis School Board signs historic Memorandum of Agreement
The human brain is remarkable organ capable of absorbing & storing more bits of information than any other species.
Acculturation is a TEMPORARY state.
A process by which an individual or group socially adapts to a new situation
Assimilation is a PERMANENT state.
A process by which an individual or group is absorbed into another group or culture.