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CH. 12 RECONSTRUCTION. CH. 12-1 PLANS FOR RECONSTRUCTION AMERICAN HISTORY. THE SOUTH AFTER THE WAR. Lincoln’s visit to Richmond highlighted some of the challenges the nation faced after the war Large parts of the countryside were devastated

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ch 12 reconstruction

CH. 12 RECONSTRUCTION

CH. 12-1 PLANS FOR RECONSTRUCTION

AMERICAN HISTORY

the south after the war
THE SOUTH AFTER THE WAR
  • Lincoln’s visit to Richmond highlighted some of the challenges the nation faced after the war
  • Large parts of the countryside were devastated
  • Farm buildings, machinery, work animals and other livestock were destroyed or lost.
  • Former slaves had very few job opportunities and they could make a living
slide3

PROPERTY LOSSES

  • Property values of plantations and farms fell by 50%
  • Land not destroyed suffered from neglect.
  • Many small farmers died in the war
  • South’s transportation network in poor shape
  • Long stretches of railroad were useless
slide4

CHALLENGES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS

  • Nearly 4 million African Americans won their freedom
  • Most had no money or education
  • Former owners needed workers but could not afford to pay them
  • Former slaves didn’t want to work long hours
slide5

Women resisted work in the fields

  • They wanted children to enroll in school
  • HOW TO TREAT THE SOUTH
  • What place would African Americans have in the southern political system?
  • Were the confederate states conquered territories or were they back in the union
  • Should the states be punished or forgiven?
wartime reconstruction
WARTIME RECONSTRUCTION
  • March 1865—Congress created the FREEDMEN’S BUREAU
  • Provided help to thousands of black and white southerners uprooted by fighting
  • Bureau lasted from 1865-1877
  • Lincoln said the south should be treated “with malice toward none, with charity for all”
slide7

RECONSTRUCTION EXPERIMENTS

  • When Union troops captured southern plantations, they would hire African Americans to work for pay
  • Former slaves might also rent the plantation
  • Most famous wartime experiment occurred on the Sea Islands off SC
  • January 1865—Gen. Sherman divided land along the SC & GA coasts into 40-acre plots
slide8

By the end of the war, more than 40,000 freedman were farming in the region

  • In LA, Freedman signed contracts to work for a year.
  • In return, the owner agreed to provide housing, food, and medical care in addition to wages
  • Sometimes the owner would deduct costs from wages leaving workers with little money so they couldn’t afford to leave the plantation when their contract was up
slide9

LINCOLN’S RECONSTRUCTION PLANS

  • 1862—Lincoln appoints military governors to rule parts of Confederacy already in Union hands
  • Dec. 1863—Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
  • Offered forgiveness for the rebellion to all southerners except high-ranking leaders
slide10

When 10% of the state’s voters had taken a loyalty oath to the Union, they could form a new state government

  • The new government would ban slavery
  • This procedure was known as the TEN PERCENT PLAN
  • Before the war ended 3 states had been accepted—AR, LA, TN
slide11

OPPOSITION TO LINCOLN’S PLAN

  • Congress thought is was in their power to readmit states
  • Lincoln’s supporters pointed out that since secession was an illegal act, those states never left the union so they didn’t have to readmit them.
  • Some thought those states were conquered territories so Congress would decide on their admission like other territories.
slide12

Some people thought 10% was too lenient. These people thought it should be a majority

  • Congress refused to allow Senators and Representatives from states accepted under Lincoln’s plan to take their seats
  • Congress proposed their own reconstruction plan—the WADE-DAVIS BILL
slide13

Lincoln thought Wade-Davis would make southerners want to continue the war.

  • He killed it with a POCKET VETO.
  • Pocket Veto—If a bill is passed within 10 days to the end of the congressional session, the President can decide to “put it in his pocket” and not sign it. When the session ends, the bill dies
lincoln s assassination
LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATION
  • Lincoln’s popularity from winning the war allowed him to win the battle with Congress over Reconstruction
  • April 14-15, 1865—Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C.
  • Booth was a southern sympathizer
  • Original plan was to kidnap Lincoln and exchange him for prisoners
slide15

Kidnap plot failed when Lincoln’s schedule changed

  • Booth was part of a group of assassins
  • Other targets: Secretary of State William Seward & Vice President Andrew Johnson
  • Booth escaped into VA where he was located by Union troops and killed when he refused to surrender
  • Southerners hated Johnson more than Lincoln
  • Johnson was a southerner who sided with the Union
johnson and congress differ over reconstruction
JOHNSON AND CONGRESS DIFFER OVER RECONSTRUCTION
  • Johnson sworn in a few hours after Lincoln’s death
  • EARLY RELATIONS WITH CONGRESS
  • Johnson held no ill will against the south or southerners—only against wealthy planters
slide17

JOHNSON’S RECONSTRUCTION PLAN

  • Johnson kept reconstruction under presidential control
  • Johnson used Lincoln’s plan with additions
  • Southerners who owned property worth more than $20,000 would have to apply to the President for a pardon, just like Confederate military
slide18

Johnson’s plan didn’t require a certain percentage to take a loyalty oath

  • States would have to:
  • --call a convention to repeal secession
  • --amend the state constitution to abolish slavery
  • --refuse to pay the debts of the Confederate government
slide19

CONCERNS OVER JOHNSON’S PLAN

  • No provision for giving freedman a role in state government
  • December 1865—all states had be re-admitted except Texas
  • A battle between Johnson and Congress over reconstruction was about to begin.
  • THE END