School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa
1 / 61

School of Systems and Enterprises Stevens Institute of Technology, USA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

ES/SDOE 678 Reconfigurable Agile Systems and Enterprises Fundamentals of Analysis, Synthesis, and Performance Session 7 – Quality: Principles, Reality, Strategy. File. File. School of Systems and Enterprises Stevens Institute of Technology, USA. Your Class web-page: < ask instructor>

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'School of Systems and Enterprises Stevens Institute of Technology, USA' - nash

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

ES/SDOE 678Reconfigurable Agile Systems and EnterprisesFundamentals of Analysis, Synthesis, and PerformanceSession 7 – Quality: Principles, Reality, Strategy



School of Systems and Enterprises

Stevens Institute of Technology, USA

Your Class web-page: <ask instructor>

Support docs & links:



Before starting
Before starting…

  • Your mid-term was just completed. Some of you had difficulty. That’s what the text book is for – learning usually requires study. D1 was a “heads-up”, intended to show you what you don’t know. A poor showing on D1 will not be held against you … but no improvement on D2 … ???

  • 40 hours in class + 80 hours out of class (engaged study) is what earns course credit.

  • Following the Instructions (when you don’t, the impression is that you are winging the whole thing):

  • You are required to read and study and demonstrate that you have learned something – in addition to showing up for class, writing something, and putting words on forms. Winging it won’t work .

  • Name your file(s): 678D<1 or 2>-<last name><first name>V<version #> Example: 678D1-DoeJohnV1.doc (version numbers insure distinction if revisions occur).

  • Some of you did not take your instructions and tool templates from SDOE678-Unit11.ppt as suggested.

  • Two-page operational story: clear evidence of a plug-and-play, drag-and-drop agile system demonstrated with response objectives, requirements, values, response enabling principles, and operational/integrity management – all wrapped inside a story of the system-in-operation, delivering its values.

  • The operational story is supposed to reflect a scenario after deployment, not what has to be considered for design. As a result, some of you who did design time stories instead of operational time stories had problems with your RS Analysis that is supposed to only reflect operational time issues, and this will cause problems in the Closure Metric for the final unless fixed.

  • Heads up: You will have an exercise early in the next unit (8) that will require you to develop the strategic objectives/themes from your Deliverable #1 story.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

"Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men's blood and probably will themselves not be realized.

Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will not die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with ever-growing insistency"

[Daniel Burnham, architect].


Unit 6 Exercise Feedback in Unit 8 – Now 4-or-so mid-term feedbacks instead

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa



Response issues

Tassimo BrewBot Operational System











Response Issues

Response Type

Response Situations

  • Make different types of hot coffee and tea drinks (t,q,s)

  • Match drink flavor to user taste (t,s)


  • Cold drinks?

  • Cocktail discs?

  • Multi-lingual display text option (c,s)

  • Water filtration option (c)

  • Larger size water container capacity option (t,s)

  • Accommodate new drink discs (t,q,s)

  • Accommodate new drink brewing recipes ((t,q,s)

  • User wants manual recipe capability (q,s)

  • Available disc selection not satisfactory to user (t)

  • Improperly place disc and/or RFID registration (q)

  • User intelligence (q,s)

  • Amount of water called for by recipe (t,q)

  • Pressure of water called for by recipe (q,s)

  • Temperature of water called for by recipe (t,q,s)


  • Small to large drink quantity (t,q,s)

  • Cup size physically accommodated (t,c,s)

  • Recipe brewing steps and sequence (t)

  • Multiple discs for a single drink (t,q)

Rrs principles for tassimo brewbot operational system
RRS Principles for: Tassimo Brewbot Operational System

(Think: Plug-and-Play, Drag-and-drop)

  • Evolving Standards (Framework)Component interaction standards, responsibilities/processes for evolving the standards.

  • Brewing sub-systems

  • Water quality standards

  • Recipe code

  • Product eng mgr responsible for evolution

  • Self-Contained Units (Modules) Components are distinct, separable, loosely-coupled, self-sufficient units.

  • Base units

  • Flavor discs

  • Display language

  • Recipes

  • RFID reader

  • Plug Compatibility (Facilitated Interfacing) Components easily inserted/removed, component evolution responsibility designated.

  • RFID recipe designator on bottom of disc

  • Product eng mgr responsible for module evolution

  • Redundancy and Diversity Duplicate components provides fail-soft & capacity options; diversity provides functional options.

  • Many different types of discs

  • User inventories as many duplicates as desired



  • Facilitated ReuseComponents are reusable and replicable; with responsibilities designated for inventory ready-for-use availability.

  • Foolproof easy in-and-out of discs

  • Product mktng mgr responsible for module inventory

  • Elastic Capacity Component populations and functional capacity be increased and decreased widely within the existing framework.

  • Recipe designates small to large amount of water

  • Cup size is adjustable with base elevator

  • No limit to variety of discs

  • Alternate base unit capabilities may be added


  • Flat Interaction Components communicate directly on a peer-to-peer relationship; parallel rather than sequential relationships are favored.

  • Recipes drive brew subsystems directly step by step

  • Distributed Control and Information Decisions made at point of maximum knowledge; information accessible globally but kept locally.

  • Control is in each RFID recipe, not in the base unit

  • Deferred Commitment Component relationships are transient when possible; decisions & fixed bindings are postponed until necessary.

  • Brew is determined by disc-inserted RFID recipe

  • Self-Organization Component relationships are self-determined; and component interaction is self-adjusting or negotiated.

  • Recipe reorganizes brewing steps

Items here generally address issues on RS Analysis directly and indirectly

Tassimo brewbot operational system
Tassimo BrewBot Operational System


Architectural Concept Pattern




brew steps



display text

base units

Product eng mgr

Component mix

Product mktng mgr

Component inventory

Automated recipe

System assembly

Prod eng mgr

Infrastructure evolution





2-step latte



Brew sub-sys protocol

Water standards

Recipe code

RFID reader

multilingual display


large water container

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa


Universal jigsaw puzzle www tenyo co jp jigazo

300 identically shaped pieces in varying shades of a single color, a few with gradations. Out of the box, you can make Mona Lisa, JFK, etc, configuring according to symbols printed on the back. Or, e-mail a photo to the company, and they will send you back a pattern that will recreate that photo.

Universal Jigsaw

300 pixels: an infinite number of pictures

Modular – But Agile?


School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa color, a few with gradations. Out of the box, you can make Mona Lisa, JFK, etc, configuring according to symbols printed on the back. Or, e-mail a photo to the company, and they will send you back a pattern that will recreate that photo.jfoley/Summer2009/Sun_1320_TubeSat%20Utah%20August%202009%201.pdfand

Moon Rocket for

Google Lunar X-Prize

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Interorbital color, a few with gradations. Out of the box, you can make Mona Lisa, JFK, etc, configuring according to symbols printed on the back. Or, e-mail a photo to the company, and they will send you back a pattern that will recreate that photo. SystemsPersonal Satellite Kit

$8,000 kit includes launch intolow-earth-orbit on an IOS NEPTUNE 30

Orbit-friendlylaunches beginin Q4 2010

after a few weeks,re-entry & burn-up

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Plug and Play Labs, Faster Science color, a few with gradations. Out of the box, you can make Mona Lisa, JFK, etc, configuring according to symbols printed on the back. Or, e-mail a photo to the company, and they will send you back a pattern that will recreate that photo.04Apr2010 Discovery News, Ian O’Neill

This is the first attempt at designing and building a standardized, cheap and lightweight technology to be used by multiple organizations for a variety experiments.

"When the rack is installed, you'd plug in the lab via USB," said Kris Kimel, President of Kentucky Space. By giving "CubeLabs" this capability, "they basically become 'plug and play' laboratories," Kimel said, emphasizing the convenience of the NanoRack/CubeLab concept.

Up to 16 individual CubeLabs can be installed on each NanoRack, each capable of carrying out independent experiments.

The most appealing thing about these mini laboratories is that they are very lightweight, so they can be easily unplugged, stowed and transported to and from the station by the next available flight. Currently, space station experiments are often too unwieldy, forcing research groups to wait for long periods of time before they can retrieve their experiments from space, no matter how interesting or important their science results may be.

Also, due to their design and function, NanoRacks allow a higher pace of microgravity experimentation, stimulating more "high risk" experiments, potentially boosting low-cost space research.

A Space Science ‘Mash-Up’ - Kimel expects to have a second NanoRack installed on the ISS in May. "Almost all of our space tech is built by students. NASA has very stringent quality controls, so this is a huge achievement," he added.

Kentucky Space and NanoRacks will offer their system to research groups to house their own experiments (while still providing CubeLab support), but Kimel pointed out that his organization will be carrying out experiments of their own, focusing on the microgravity biomedical field.

Space Research can be Ubiquitous - The first orbitalCubeSat is scheduled to be launched in November 2010. The NanoRack/CubeLab concept opens the doors to entrepreneurial space research, joining the upward trend of commercialized spaceflight while getting students, researchers, entrepreneurs and NASA to work together toward a common goal

The NanoRack plus CubeLab

F 35 joint strike fighter leverages cots for avionics systems

…the real key for the F-35 program is middleware that enables COTS hardware and software

to be upgraded without having to “rectify or rewrite 8 million

lines of code.”


F-35 Joint Strike Fighterleverages COTS for avionics systems


November 2011 Status: After a decade in development and numerous cost and schedule overruns, it faces an uphill fight against budget reductions. Ten years and $66 billion later, the aircraft is still in development, five years behind schedule and 64 percent over cost estimates. The plane has turned into a budget target. “… we lived in a rich man’s world," said Jacques Gansler. "There has been less emphasis on cost over the past 10 years.”

Guest speaker murray gell mann beauty and truth in physics 16 min
Guest Speaker – Murray Gell-Mann enables COTS hardware and softwareBeauty and truth in physics (16 min)

  • Murray Gell-Mann brings visibility to a crucial aspect of our existence that we can't actually see: elemental particles. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics for introducing quarks, one of two fundamental ingredients for all matter in the universe.

  • He's been called "the man with five brains" -- and Murray Gell-Mann has the resume to prove it. In addition to being a

  • Nobel laureate, he is an accomplished physicist who's earned numerous awards, medals and honorary degrees for his work with subatomic particles, including the groundbreaking theory that the nucleus of an atom comprises 100 or so fundamental building blocks called quarks.

  • Gell-Mann's influence extends well beyond his field: He's a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He also serves on the board of the Wildlife Conservation Society and is a director of Encyclopedia Britannica. Gell-Mann, a professor emeritus of Caltech, now heads the evolution of human languages program at the Santa Fe Institute, which he cofounded in 1984.

  • A prolific writer -- he's penned scores of academic papers and several books, including The Quark and the Jaguar -- Gell-Mann is also the subject of the popular science biography Strange Beauty: Murray Gell-Mann and the Revolution in 20th-Century Physics.

Video and text above at:

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

  • BREAK enables COTS hardware and software

Course roadmap
Course Roadmap enables COTS hardware and software

Have You Signed The Attendance Roster?

Session 1 – Overview and Introduction to Agile Systems

Session 2 – Problem Space and Solution Space

Session 3 – Response Types, Metrics, Values

Session 4 – Situational Analysis and Strategy Exercise

Session 5 – Architecture and Design Principles

Session 6 – Design Exercise and Strategy Refinement

Session 7 – Quality: Principles, Reality, Strategy

Session 8 – Operations: Closure and Integrity Management

Session 9 – Culture and Proficiency Development

Session 10 – The Edge of Knowledge, Projects







Quality principles reality strategy
Quality: Principles, Reality, Strategy enables COTS hardware and software

  • Quality principles

    • Requisite Variety

    • Parsimony

    • Harmony

  • Reality Recognition

  • Agile-Strategy ConOps

Design quality principles
Design Quality Principles enables COTS hardware and software

  • Requisite Variety (Functional Quality)

    • Ashby's Law: "The larger the variety of actions available to a control system, the larger the variety of perturbations it is able to compensate....variety must match variety."

    • Any effective system must be as agile as its environmental forces.

    • Reality-compatible (rational) policy, procedure, and practice.

  • Parsimony (Economic Quality)

    • Occam's Razor: Given a choice between two ... choose the simplest.

    • Unintended consequences are the result of complexity.

    • Humans can only deal with 5-9 items simultaneously.

    • Bounded rationality (Herb Simon).

    • Reduces perceived Risk.

  • Harmony/Delight (Aesthetic Quality)

    • Perception: non-negative impact on personal productivity and goal priorities.

    • Perception: non-negative impact on org's productivity and goal priorities.

    • Rationalized with natural human and org behavior.

    • Engenders feelings of user Trust and Respect and Compatibility.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa
Drug Catapult Found at U.S.-Mexico Border enables COTS hardware and software26Jan2011,

  • Drug smugglers trying to get marijuana across the Arizona-Mexico border apparently are trying a new approach -- a catapult.

  • National Guard troops operating a remote video surveillance system at the Naco Border Patrol Station say they observed several people preparing a catapult and launching packages over the International Border fence last Friday evening.

  • "It looks like a medieval catapult that was used back in the day," Tucson sector Border Patrol spokesman David Jimarez told Reuters.

  • Tucson TV station KVOA said Border Patrol agents working with the National Guard contacted Mexican authorities, who went to the location and disrupted the catapult operation.

  • The 3-yard tall catapult was found about 20 yards from the U.S. border on a flatbed towed by a sports utility vehicle, according to a Mexican army officer with the 45th military zone in the border state of Sonora.

  • The catapult was capable of launching 4.4 pounds of marijuana at a time, the officer said Wednesday, speaking on condition of anonymity for security reasons.

  • ---------

  • 02 Nov 2011: For the second time this year, Mexican authorities have found catapults used by drug traffickers to fling marijuana across the U.S.-Mexico border fence. Troops from Mexico’s army discovered two portable catapults, along with more than a ton of marijuana, at a residence in Agua Prieta, close to the Arizona border. These kind of low-tech means to get drugs across the border, like packaging drugs to fit through gaps in the fence, illustrates the shortcomings of the border fence as a means to stop traffickers.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa
Why? enables COTS hardware and software

  • The Death of the US-Mexico Virtual Fence – Slashdot: March 17, 2010

  • “A couple of years ago it was announced that the Boeing-built virtual fence at the US-Mexico border didn't work. Started in 2006, SBInet has been labeled a miserable failure and finally halted. A soon-to-be-released GAO report is expected to be overwhelmingly critical of SBInet, causing DHS Chief Janet Napolitano to announce yesterday that funding for the project has been frozen.

  • It's sad that $1.4 billion had to be spent on the project before the discovery that this poorly conceived idea would not work.”

  • Irresponsible Systems Engineers at:

  • contractor and acquirer

  • 1: “my boss told me to do it” didn’t work at the Nuremberg Holocost trials

  • 2: we hang the architect who designed a faulty bridge design

Requisite variety
Requisite Variety enables COTS hardware and software

Code of Hammurabi (2200 BC)King of Babylonia Translated by R.F. Harper

If a builder builds a house for a man and do not make its construction firm and the house which he has built collapse and cause the death of the owner of house – the builder shall be put to death.

  • If it cause the death of the son of the owner of the house – they shall put to death a son of that builder.

  • If it destroy property, he shall restore whatever it destroyed, and because he did not make the house which he built firm and it collapsed, he shall rebuild the house which collapsed at his own expense.

Common Law in England (15th Century)

If a carpenter undertakes to build a house and does it ill (not well), an action will lie against him

Napoleonic Code (1804)

If there is a loss in serviceability in a constructed project within 10 years of its completion because of a foundation failure or from poor workmanship, the contractor and architect will be sent to prison

Forensic Engineering, D. Fowler (slide presentation has been removed from the Internet)

Parsimony enables COTS hardware and software

“Perfection is achieved

not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.”

Ch. III: L'Avion, pg 60, Antoine de Saint-Exupery,

French novelist and aviator (1900 – 1944)Author of The Little Prince

Balancing requisite variety parsimony sometimes on the head of a pin
Balancing Requisite Variety & Parsimony enables COTS hardware and software(sometimes on the head of a pin)

Principle of Least Authority (POLA)

Marc Stiegler,

Give person/object everything they need

and nothing else



More Authority

Frank lloyd wright on harmony
Frank Lloyd Wright – On Harmony enables COTS hardware and software

  • ...only when we know what constitutes a good building...when we know that the good building is not one that hurts the landscape, but is one that makes the landscape more beautiful than it was before that building was built.

  • Still regarded as the greatest 20th Century house ever built. Responding to the geological strata of the site, his mastlike tower of stacked shale stone seemingly held aloft three cantilevered levels hovering over Bear Run, a tiny river.

  • He expressed the rocky site by metaphorically lifting the stones out of the riverbed to create the interior floor planes, using the largest rock, the Kaufman's choice spot to sunbathe, as the hearthstone for the living room fireplace. And instead of orienting the structure to face the falls, Wright floated the entire structure over the falls, merging the house inseparably into the total natural picture.

Excerpted from David Jameson,

Reusable reconfigurable architectural themes
Reusable-Reconfigurable Architectural Themes enables COTS hardware and software

Fredrich Frobel was a German educationalist who founded a series of educational tools, one of which was a set of geometric blocks that could be assembled in various combinations to form three-dimensional compositions.

Wright was himself educated in the Frobel system as a child. But, early in his career, when he began having children of his own and teaching them the Frobel method, he began re-reading the instructional material and teacher

handbook. This helped him to realize a methodology he would use throughout his life.

After Wright revisited the Frobel method, he turned to the cruciform (two elongated interlocking spaces in the shape of a cross) as a fundamental floor-plan unit. By unit, I mean a basic entity that is manipulated according to context. It may be stretched, contorted, and multiplied to construct higher-order compositions. A unit is also a pathway to knowledge, a systematic method of conceptualizing a problem, and may lead to the discovery of radically new pathways that may, in turn, become units in themselves. In Wright’s case, the turn to the cruciform led to the Prairie House, a “type of house characterized by a degree of both spatial freedom and formal order previously unknown in either the Old or New World”.

Darwin Martin House of 1904.

The Unit in Wright’s Scientific Method, Brett Holverstott,

The systematic composition of unique places
The systematic composition of unique places enables COTS hardware and software

A unit is useful because it may be modified in a variety of ways to fit a context. Its features may be systematically explored. For instance, a wing of the cruciform may become a staircase and closet, or it may be divided into two bedrooms, or it may be pushed up along one side of the

plan and made into a cantilevered dining room, or it may be stretched out to form a living room with a series of windows looking out to a garden.

A project for Wolf Lake proposed a series of pavilions arranged around a semicircular canal and on the circular island at the center.

Close examination of these pavilions, as Wright designed them in plan and perspective, reveals plan fragments matching Unity Temple, the Martin House, the Ullman House, and even a small Imperial Hotel.

Here in 1895, almost the entire set of plan types that Wright would utilize in the Prairie Period were projected in the pavilions of this unbuilt design, as numerous geometrically rigorous and systematically developed variations on the theme of the cruciform interlocking of spaces and the rhythmic disposition of pier groups.

This astonishing project may be considered as Wright’s equivalent of Piranesi’s ‘Campo Marzio’ etching; the repository and record for all manner of speculative forms to be utilized and realized in later designs.”

Darwin Martin House of 1904.

The Unit in Wright’s Scientific Method, Brett Holverstott,

The usonian house
The Usonian House enables COTS hardware and software

  • At the beginning of his career, Frank Lloyd Wright became known for his custom dream homes for the wealthy.

  • But by the mid-nineteen thirties he felt that quality design should not be dependent on a large budget.

  • He invented a spare, efficient, modular based concept for building that would provide a homeowner all the luxuries that counted in his early houses: interpenetrating spaces, extravagant light, varied ceiling heights and the all-important central hearth. His name for this type of building was a modified acronym for 'United States of North America.' That the 'Usonian' House was an alliterative cousin to 'utopian' could only enhance its marketing appeal.

  • Built on a concrete slab, it was closer to the ground and thus more interactive with nature. Early Usonians abandoned the pinwheel plan of the Prairie houses, opting for L-shaped or linear plans that reduced the sleeping areas into cells and opened the kitchen or 'workspace' into the largest floor areas devoted to living and dining. Traditional walls built of 2 x 4 studs were replaced inside and out with layered plywood and board panels that self-insulated against wind or sound.

  • So many people vied to have the master design their houses that Wright had the luxury to choose which clients would have that privilege. He customized his Usonian houses to a wider range of wealth than those initial utopian versions for the common man, expanding the modules into myriad triangles, circles and parallelograms.

David Jameson, ArchiTech Gallery,

Even the use of the home was reconfigurable
Even the enables COTS hardware and softwareUse of the Home was reconfigurable

The first Frank Lloyd Wright house that I ever experienced was a Usonian - the Hanna House built at Stanford University.

This house evolved as the Hanna’s requirements, lifestyle and income did.It started off as a “middle-class” dwelling for a young family, and became, over a twenty year period, a spacious, eloquent home for a successful professional couple.

The first small Master Bedroom became the Hanna’s study; the three children’s Bed Rooms morphed into a new Master Bed Room; and the Family Room became a large formal Dining Room for entertainment.

A shop and garden room was added as income allowed. All this was accomplished with minor reconstruction; the entire scope of work having been programmed, and structurally provided for, from the beginning.

Professor Hanna was clearly in love with his environment which evolved with him and Mrs Hanna as they raised a family and built individual careers. I could see that it had become an integral part of their life and that living in it had deeply effected their view of life. He talked about the impact the environment had on his children as they were growing up.

The Post Usonian Project, Matt Taylor, 1999,

Aesthetic quality
Aesthetic Quality enables COTS hardware and software

Frank Lloyd Wright’s rapidly-done sketches for Fallingwater were a wonderful tour de force of architectural drawing under pressure. 

As one of Wright’s admiring apprentices, Edgar Tafel recalls it, Wright was at his  Wisconsin studio on September 22, 1935,  when he got an unexpected call from Edgar Kaufmann, his impulsive client and the

owner of  the Pittsburgh department store.   Kaufmann was in Milwaukee a few hours away, and announced he was driving out to see Wright’s progress on the drawings for the summerhouse at Bear Run, Pennsylvania.

“Come right along E.J., we’re ready for you,” Wright said.  At that moment he had no drawings of Fallingwater.

Always resourceful, the 69-year-old architect gathered his colored pencils, went to the drafting board, and while admiring apprentices watched, rapidly drew the plans of a house that became an icon of American architecture.  As fast as his pencils wore out or broke, he reached for new ones. His style when drawing was to deliver running commentaries about the clients.  For Kaufmann he knew what was needed. “The rock on which E.J sits will be the hearth, coming right out of the floor, the fire burning just behind it.  The warming kettle will fit into the wall here…  Steam will permeate the atmosphere.  You will hear the hiss….”

Dove’s interpretation: Wright had a storehouse of reusable functional modular concepts/patterns in his head that allowed him to focus his creative energy on insightful quality issues that would delight a client’s personal sense, rather than the mundane issues of functional design – which he could quickly assemble and arrange to meet the higher level aesthetic-quality objectives.

Harmony attractive things work better
Harmony: Attractive Things Work Better enables COTS hardware and software

“Noam Tractinsky, an Israeli scientist, was puzzled. Attractive things certainly should be preferred over ugly ones, but why would they work better? Yet two Japanese researchers, Masaaki Kurosu and Kaori Kashimura, claimed just that. They developed two forms of automated teller machines. Both forms were identical in function, the number of buttons, and how they worked, but one had the buttons and screens arranged attractively, the other unattractively. Surprise! The Japanese found that the attractive ones were easier to use.

Tractinsky was suspicious. Maybe the experiment had flaws. Or perhaps the result would be true of Japanese, but certainly not of Israelis. “Clearly,” said Tractinsky, “aesthetic preferences are culturally dependent.” Moreover, he continued, “Japanese culture is known for its aesthetic tradition,” but Israelis? Nah, Israelis are action oriented—they don’t care about beauty.So Tractinsky redid the experiment. He got the ATM layouts from Kurosu and Kashimura, translated them from Japanese into Hebrew, and designed a new experiment, with rigorous methodological controls. Not only did he replicate the Japanese findings, but the results were stronger in Israel than in Japan, contrary to his belief that beauty and function “were not expected to

correlate” –Tractinsky was so surprised that he put that phrase “were not expected” in italics, an unusual thing to do in a scientific paper.

This is a surprising conclusion. In the early 1900s, Herbert Read, who wrote numerous books on art and aesthetics stated that "it requires a somewhat mystical theory of aesthetics to find any necessary connection between beauty and function,” and that belief is still common today. How could aesthetics affect how easy something is to use?

Book Chapter:

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Wearable electronics self-powered by using human body heat enables COTS hardware and software06Nov09, Vladimir Leonov and RuudVullers J Renewable and Sustainable Energy,

  • An energy harvester (or an energy scavenger) is a small power generator that uses energy available in the ambient, such as electromagnetic energy, wind, water flow, or a temperature gradient. … a true energy harvester is not only a microgenerator that uses energy available in the ambient. It also does not consume sensible amounts of primary energy required in a host/neighbor object/subject so there is no need to compensate for any adverse effect caused by the harvester.

  • Example: Necessity of a wireless remote control for a television pushed American physicist Robert Adler born in Austria to invent in 1956 a device which was converting mechanical energy of pushing the button on a remote control device into acoustic signals that controlled functions on the television set i.e., it used the principle similar to that of tuning folks. The device called “Zenith space command” stayed in use for over 2 decades.

  • Example: The modern self-powered watches consume a power in between several and 1 μW, a very low power. However, if we look back into the history, we can find out that even the first self-winding watches consumed extremely low power, too. Indeed, walking with such a watch in the pocket for just a few tens of minutes completely wound the mainspring.

  • A human being generates more than 100 W of heat; therefore, a quite useful electrical power still can be obtained using a person as a heat generator. The tool for converting heat flow into electricity is a thermoelectric generator (TEG), the heart of which is a thermopile. Typically, only a few watts of heat flow can be harvested unobtrusively on a person and thermoelectrically converted into several milliwatts in a form of electricity. If we recall that watches consume 1000 times less, it is fairly good power.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

The parking footprint of ultrasmall vehicles like the CityCar is significantly smaller than that of traditional cars. USVs can fold and stack, creating efficient urban footprints.


The CityCar’s folding capabilities drastically reduce its footprint, freeing up urban space for other uses. It also weighs a fraction of other vehicles.

Complete rethink paul makovsky www metropolismag com story 20100317 a complete rethink

GM/Segway PUMA concept car (left) -- MIT Media Lab’s CityCar (middle and right)

Complete RethinkPaul Makovsky,

Reinventing the Automobile: Personal Urban Mobility for the 21st Century (MIT Press), William J. Mitchell, directs the Smart Cities research group at MIT’s Media Lab, GM’s Christopher E. Borroni-Bird and Lawrence D. Burns (formerly of GM). Interview here with Mitchell about … why designers need to start thinking more holistically.

It’s important to get the technology and the policy right, but in the end, the way you break a logjam is by engaging people’s imagination, people’s desire, by creating things that they never thought of before. This is something that Apple has led the way in. Create sexy prototypes and convincing small-scale pilot projects in sympathetic environments.

It’s about systems thinking, about how everything is related to everything else. How do you get designers—whether they’re car designers or architects or urban planners—to take this bigger-picture, more holistic approach?

One of the huge problems with design is the traditionally defined disciplines. You’re an architect or a graphic designer or a silicon-chip designer or an interaction designer, blah blah, blah. The big, important design issues just don’t fall in these categories anymore.

So…we take architects, urban designers, economists, mechanical engineers, electrical geeks, and we put them together into an intense multidisciplinary design environment, and it’s everyone’s responsibility to contribute to everything and educate the rest of the group as necessary on the issues that you know most about.” We knew nothing about battery technology when we started, but one of the great adventures of MIT is you can walk down the hall and find the world’s leading expert. The strategy is to go out, find what you need to know, and bring it back to the design project.

The fundamental professional skill of a designer these days is strategically investing learning time. You must be able to say, “OK, there is an immensity of stuff out there to learn, but this is what’s important to instantly learn for this project.” You can never say, “Well, I’m an architect, so I don’t do battery technology.” Engineering and business schools are starting to learn how important design is, how the most effective way of adding economic value is to do clever design, but they don’t have a clue yet how to do it.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

  • Embraceable Security CityCar (middle and right)

  • Bullet-proof cars are an example of aesthetic values applied to security against an intelligent attacker.

  • Why?

  • Perhaps because the car is not bought for its functional transport as much as for its self-expression statement.

  • An armored military vehicle would do better, but not be especially acceptable, nor personally expressive in the natural value dimensions (macho militia minds excepted).

Synergistic security embraceable
Synergistic Security – Embraceable CityCar (middle and right)

  • The Evergreen Aviation and Space Museum – home of the world-famous Spruce Goose airplane – constructed a new facility with a 232-seat IMAX theater, conference center and open gallery space for displaying aircraft.

  • An 80-foot tall atrium is enclosed by glass on the north and south sides, and the lobby and two mezzanine levels open onto it, where biplanes and triplanes are suspended from the ceiling. To provide sweeping views of the interior and preserve the expansive feel of the space, the architects designed two open staircases. An enclosed staircase set in the back of the building would provide emergency egress in case of a fire.

  • During construction, the building management team requested a design change that eliminated the enclosed emergency stairs at the back of the building. To meet building codes, the architects were required to redesign one of the existing open staircases to provide a fire-safe exit. That late in the project, enclosing one of the very prominent staircases with masonry, gypsum or similar fire-blocking materials would have conflicted with the overall building design and marred a dramatic feature

  • – three-story-high stairs that opened onto the atrium. To address this challenge, the architects proposed instead to use fire-rated glass and frames to enclose the stairs.

  • To meet the various design and code requirements for the enclosed staircase, the fire-rated glass had to do quadruple duty: 1) be clear and wireless with frames that matched the building’s exterior glazed curtain wall as closely as possible; 2) block the spread of flames and smoke for up to two hours; 3) shield people exiting the building from the high heat of a structural fire; and 4) provide safety impact resistance since the glass would be in a floor-to-ceiling configuration.

  • Scott/Edwards found the solution with Pilkington Pyrostop™ fire-rated glass and Fireframes® Curtainwall Series fire-rated frames from Technical Glass Products, Snoqualmie, Washington. The glass looks like ordinary window glass and provides a clear view in and out of the stairs. The curtain wall frames and doors are sleek and slender, unlike the bulky wrap-around style of traditional hollow metal steel. Together, the glass and frames are fire-rated for two hours and meet the highest impact safety ratings for glazing .

  • Why does construction architecture exhibit and cater to aesthetic values? Perhaps because practitioners are schooled in the arts and human needs as well as structural engineering.

Agility faces reality cyber security strategy provides an example
Agility Faces Reality CityCar (middle and right)Cyber Security StrategyProvides an Example

  • Default Diagnostic Mode PasswordUsed to Reprogram ATM

  • (20 September 2006)

  • Someone reprogrammed an ATM in Virginia to dispense US$20 bills in place of US$5 bills. 

  • The machine remained in the revised mode for nine daysbefore a clerk in the store that houses the ATM was alerted to the situation. 

  • An investigation determined that the password allowing access to the ATM's diagnostic mode was the default one;the manual for the machine lists this password.


Maintaining systems in unstable states takes constant energy input
Maintaining Systems CityCar (middle and right) in Unstable StatesTakes Constant Energy Input

Expecting or enforcing ideal and repetitive behavior ignores reality...

not a substitute for effective strategy

Decision making
Decision Making CityCar (middle and right)

  • People make decisions every day, all day long ... about:

  • What to do next and how to do it

  • What is expedient vs what "ought to happen"

  • What is most important (to them) at the moment

  • Where to apply scarce time and resources

  • These decisions impact:

  • Security investments by the organization

  • Security practices by the organization – at the immediate moment

  • Security practices by the individual – at the immediate moment

Effective strategy requires new understanding
Effective Strategy Requires New Understanding CityCar (middle and right)

  • A rational view of the problem:

    Reality bites – what is its nature?

    The problem is bigger than technology – what is its nature?

    The situation is in constant flux – what is its nature?

  • A rational view of the solution:

    You are compromised – now what?

    Situation in constant flux – what is proactive response ability?

    Effective strategy – what is its nature?

Reality factors issues
Reality Factors Issues CityCar (middle and right)

  • Human Behavior – Human error, whimsy, expediency, arrogance...

  • Organizational Behavior – Survival rules rule, nobody's in control...

  • Technology Pace – Accelerating vulnerability-introductions...

  • System Complexity – Incomprehensible, unintended consequences...

  • Globalization – Partners with different ethics, values, infrastructures...

  • Agile Enterprise – Outsourcing, web services, cots, transparency...

  • Agile Adversaries/Competitors/Customers – Distributed, collaborative, self organizing, proactive, impatient, innovative…

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa CityCar (middle and right)p=205

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa CityCar (middle and right)

Brad CMarch 2nd, 2010 at 10:34 amI’ll admit that it is a bit of a strawman argument. But this actually happened to me yesterday (hence the screenshots). I think it resonates with people because from time to time DRM goes from being a security precaution to a complete and total pain in the ass and it’s happened to all of us at least once.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

http:// CityCar (middle and right)

Piracy reality factor recognized
Piracy: Reality Factor Recognized CityCar (middle and right)

  • Valve boss says service, not price, the big issue for consumers and publishers

  • 25 Nov 2011,

  • "In general, we think there is a fundamental misconception about piracy. Piracy is almost always a service problem and not a pricing problem. For example, if a pirate offers a product anywhere in the world, 24 x 7, purchasable from the convenience of your personal computer, and the legal provider says the product is region-locked, will come to your country 3 months after the U.S. release, and can only be purchased at a brick and mortar store, then the pirate's service is more valuable.

  • Most DRM solutions diminish the value of the product by either directly restricting a customers use or by creating uncertainty.

  • Our goal is to create greater service value than pirates, and this has been successful enough for us that piracy is basically a non-issue for our company. For example, prior to entering the Russian market, we were told that Russia was a waste of time because everyone would pirate our products. Russia is now about to become our largest market in Europe.

  • Our success comes from making sure that both customers and partners feel like they get a lot of value from those services. They can trust us not to take advantage of the relationship that we have with them.

  • We usually think of ourselves as customer centric rather than production centric. Most of our decisions are based on the rapidly evolving opportunities to better serve our customers, and not on optimizing to be a better game company or digital distributor. The latter focus would be more of a straitjacket than conceptual aid.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

So Long, And No Thanks for the Externalities: CityCar (middle and right)The Rational Rejection of Security Advice by UsersCormacHerley. 2009. In Proceedings of the New Security Paradigms Workshop 2009.

  • It is often suggested that users are hopelessly lazy and unmotivated on security questions. They chose weak passwords, ignore security warnings, and are oblivious to certificates errors. We argue that users' rejection of the security advice they receive is entirely rational from an economic perspective. The advice offers to shield them from the direct costs of attacks, but burdens them with far greater indirect costs in the form of effort.

  • Looking at various examples of security advice we find that the advice is complex and growing, but the benefit is largely speculative or moot. For example, much of the advice concerning passwords is outdated and does little to address actual treats, and fully 100% of certificate error warnings appear to be false positives. Further, if users spent even a minute a day reading URLs to avoid phishing, the cost (in terms of user time) would be two orders of magnitude greater than all phishing losses.

  • Thus we find that most security advice simply offers a poor cost-benefit tradeoff to users and is rejected. Security advice is a daily burden, applied to the whole population, while an upper bound on the benefit is the harm suffered by the fraction that become victims annually. When that fraction is small, designing security advice that is beneficial is very hard. For example, it makes little sense to burden all users with a daily task to spare 0.01% of them a modest annual pain."

Getting help is only a click away
Getting Help is only a Click Away CityCar (middle and right)

Nothing is too hard
Nothing is Too Hard CityCar (middle and right)

  • Phony Cisco Equipment Made in China

  • SANS NewsBites, December 8, 2009 -- Two men have been charged in connection with a scheme in which they allegedly passed off networking equipment purchased in China as Cisco products. Christopher Myers and Timothy Weatherly allegedly packaged the equipment in boxes with phony Cisco labels and included copies of Cisco manuals. They allegedly sold the equipment online. Both have been charged with conspiracy, trafficking in counterfeit goods, and trafficking in counterfeit labels. Myers is also accused of accessing a website to obtain Cisco serial numbers to attach to the products he and Weatherly sold.

Counterfeit chips from China sold to Navy

Slashdot 25 Nov 2009: “Neil Felahy of Newport Coast, California, has pleaded guilty to conspiracy and counterfeit-goods trafficking for his role in a chip-counterfeiting scam. Felahy, along with his wife and her brother, operated several microchip brokerage companies under a variety of names, including MVP Micro, Red Hat Distributors, Force-One Electronics and Pentagon Components. 'They would buy counterfeit chips from China or else take legitimate chips, sand off the brand markings and melt the plastic casings with acid to make them appear to be of higher quality or a different brand,' the US Department of Justice said in a press release. The chips were then sold to Naval Sea Systems Command, the Washington, DC group responsible for maintaining the US Navy's ships and systems, as well as to an unnamed vacuum-cleaner manufacturer in the Midwest.”

Who you gonna trust
Who You CityCar (middle and right)Gonna Trust?

HTC Android Phones Found With Malware Pre-Installed

Slashdot March 09, 2010: "Security researchers have found that Vodafone, one of the world's larger wireless providers, is distributing some HTC phones with malware pre-installed on them. The phone, HTC's Magic, runs the Google Android mobile operating system, and is one of the more popular handsets right now. A researcher at Panda Software received one of the handsets recently, and upon attaching it to her PC, found that the phone was pre-loaded with the Mariposa bot client. Mariposa has been in the news of late thanks to some arrests connected to the operation of the botnet."

  • Olympus Ships Cameras with Virus on Memory Card

  • Slashdot June 08, 2010: "Olympus Japan has issued a warning to customers who have bought its Stylus Tough 6010 digital compact camera that it comes with an unexpected extra — a virus on its internal memory card. The Autorun worm cannot infect the camera itself, but if it is plugged into a Windows computer's USB port, it can copy itself onto the PC, then subsequently infect any attached USB device. Olympus says it 'humbly apologizes' for the incident, which is believed to have affected some 1,700 units. The company said it will make every effort to improve its quality control procedures in future. Security company Sophos says that more companies need to wake up to the need for better quality control to ensure that they don't ship virus-infected gadgets. At the same time, consumers should learn to always ensure Autorun is disabled, and scan any device for malware before they use it on their computer."

In class tool applications
In-Class Tool Applications CityCar (middle and right)

  • Class Warm-ups Team Trials Team Project

  • Unit 2

  • Unit 3

  • Unit 4

  • Unit 5

  • Unit 6

  • Unit 7

  • Unit 8

  • Unit 9

  • Unit 10

AAPAnalysis: Case

ConOps: Objectives

RS Analysis: Case


RS Analysis: TWS

RS Analysis

RRS Analysis: Case


RRS Analysis: TWS

RRS + Integrity

Reality Factors: Case

Reality + Activities


Integrity: TWS


School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Reality Factors – TSA Screening Vulnerabilities… as You See It

Human Behavior – Human error, whimsy, expediency, arrogance...

  • Hangover isn’t paying attention, routine produces boredom, fatigue, care of the job

  • Overreaction and stereotyping, subjective standards, training exercise with live people

  • Organizational Behavior – Survival rules rule, nobody's in control...

  • Performance metrics, knee jerk open ended reaction

  • Counterproductive incentives, airline circumvention

  • Technology Pace – Accelerating vulnerability-introductions, not fully tested...

  • Scanning machine BS

  • System Complexity – Incomprehensible, unintended consequences...

  • Training for all reasonably possible threats

  • Globalization – Partners with different ethics, values, infrastructures...

  • Ethical and cultural differences, passengers of all kinds of background

  • Reliance on flight origin for certain standards

  • Creeping Agile Practices – Outsourcing, web services, COTS, SOA, transparency...

  • xxxx

  • Agile Adversaries/Competitors/Customers – Distributed, collaborative, self organizing, proactive, impatient, innovative...

  • Bad guys watch and find weaknesses in repetitive patterns, share info on Internet

  • Other?

  • ?

Porter on strategy
Porter on Strategy See It

Strategic differentiation

…cornerstone characteristics



No baggage







with other


No seat



use of






15 minute



Short Haul


Mid-sized Cities




737 fleet







Lean, Highly


Ground and

Gate Crews

Very Low










the low-fare






School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Semiconductor Foundry See It

Lines show synergisticdependencies










































Mix and







- Strategic Objectives

- Agile Activities – Initial

- Agile Activities - Later




“Active” continuous

outcome management

(uses verbs)







































Mix and







Strategy ActivityConOpsWeb

Inspired by Porter’s Activity Web

Emphasizes Process Activity

On the strategic activity conops web
On the Strategic Activity See ItConOps Web

  • This web of synergistic activities, that creates values, is a system in its own right.

  • This web graphic is a way of depicting the architecture of a ConOps.

  • Strategic objectives/values (red): do not have a large number, 3-7, or focus is lost.

  • Activities (yellow): these are continuous day-in-and-day-out processes that ensure the objectives are realized. They are not things or concepts. Again, keep the number smallish or the critical activities get lost in the noise.

  • The few words used to label a red or yellow bubble are critical – they must capture the essence of intent succinctly.

  • Synergistic Dependencies: more is better - multiple lines attached to every bubble – this provides robustness. And, according to Porter, makes it a lot harder for any competitor to duplicate.

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Projected See It



"When I am working on a problem,

I never think about beauty, but when I have finished, if the solution is not


I know it is wrong."

-- R. Buckminster Fuller





& Integrity

RAPTools & Process





Situation Analysis

Reality Factors



Principles Synthesis

“Quality is practical, and factories and airlines and hospital labs must be practical. But it is also moral and aesthetic. And it is also perceptual and subjective.”

-- Tom Peters



& Activities

In class tool applications1
In-Class Tool Applications See It

  • Class Warm-ups Team Trials Team Project

  • Unit 2

  • Unit 3

  • Unit 4

  • Unit 5

  • Unit 6

  • Unit 7

  • Unit 8

  • Unit 9

  • Unit 10

AAPAnalysis: Case

ConOps: Objectives

RS Analysis: Case


RS Analysis

RS Analysis

RRS Analysis: Case



RRS + Integrity

Reality Factors: Case

Reality + Activities



School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Review your RRS exercise results from the end of Unit 6

Identify reality issues

Build/refine preliminary ConOps Web: use the “strategic objectives” from the very first exercise and add the activities necessary to deliver the values

Generate two slides:

1: Reality Factors – 8 categories

2: ConOps Web – red and yellow bubbles

School of systems and enterprises stevens institute of technology usa

Reality Factors See It

Human Behavior – Human error, whimsy, expediency, arrogance...

  • ?

  • Organizational Behavior – Survival rules rule, nobody's in control...

  • ?

  • Technology Pace – Accelerating vulnerability-introductions, not fully tested...

  • ?

  • System Complexity – Incomprehensible, unintended consequences...

  • ?

  • Globalization – Partners with different ethics, values, infrastructures...

  • ?

  • Creeping Agile Practices – Outsourcing, webservices, transparency, COTS, SOA, ...

  • x

  • Agile Adversaries – Distributed, collaborative, self organizing, proactive...

  • ?

  • Other?

  • ?

System _____________________ See It


Strategic Activity ConOps Web

- Strategic Themes/Values

- Functional Activities












Change the lines and bubbles,

this is not a fill-in-the-blank model

(Think: Plug-and-Play, Drag-and-drop)