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FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
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  1. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Prof. Ranjan Kumar Bal Utkal University

  2. What is Common? • Lakshmi Niwas Mittal • Kumar Mangalam Birla • Indra Nooyi • Osama Bin Laden

  3. COURSE OUTLINE: F.A. • Conceptual Knowledge • Mechanics • Financial Statements • Analysis & Decision Making

  4. F. A.: WHY TO READ ? • Personal Life • Professional Life • An Investment for Future • Strategy

  5. BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS • Merchandising (Trading) Organisations • Manufacturing Organisations • Service Organisations Business organisations are cash machines.

  6. BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS • Private Limited Company • Public Limited Company • Limited Liability Partnership

  7. ACCOUNTING IS THE LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS. • Serves as a means of communication • Communicates / reports the events

  8. Anthony & Reece: “Accounting is not exactly a foreignlanguage; the problem of learning it is more like that of an American learning to speak English as it is spoken in Great Britain.”“Language evolve and change in response to the changing needs of society, and so does Accounting.”

  9. ACCOUNTING IS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM INPUT (Raw Data) SYSTEM PROCESSES (Men & Equipment) OUT PUT (Reports & Information)

  10. OUTPUTS • Financial Statements • Tax Returns • Managerial Data and Reports • Special Reports

  11. USERS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION • Management • Shareholders and Investors • Lenders • Creditors • Employees • Customers • Govt. and Regulatory Agencies • General Public • Others: Media, Consumer Organizations, Researchers & Analysts, etc.

  12. EVOLUTION OF ACCOUNTING • Stewardship Accounting • Financial Accounting • Cost Accounting • Management Accounting Financial Accounting Vs. Managerial Accounting

  13. DEFINITIONS AAA: “Accounting is the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgments and decisions by the users of information.” AICPA: “Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are in part, at least of a financial character and interpreting the results thereof.”

  14. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING • Recording • Classifying • Summarizing • Analyzing & Interpreting • Communicating

  15. OBJECTIVES : F.A. • To keep systematic records. • To ascertain the net effects of the business operations. • To ascertain the financial position of the organisations. • To provide accounting information to interested parties.

  16. Principles to be observed at the recording stage Accounting Entity Money Measurement Objective Evidence Dual Aspect Realisation Cost Accrual Principles to be observed at the reporting stage Going concern Accounting Period Matching Conservative Consistency Materiality Full Disclosure ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES

  17. CASH BASISVs.ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING Accounting Framework: Includes GAAP on the basis of which accounting data is processed, analyzed and reported.

  18. GAAP • A set of concepts, conventions, rules, and procedures • Accepted by accountants over a period of time • Guides in the preparation and presentation of financial reports

  19. ACCOUNTING STANDARDS • Specifies acceptable accounting methods • Uniformity • Harmonization • ASB of the ICAI – AS Vs. Ind AS • IASB - IFRS • FASB

  20. ACCOUNTING EQUATION • Economic Resources = Sources of Resources or Claims. • Assets = Liabilities • Equity + Liabilities = Assets

  21. EQUITY & LIABILITIES Creditors Rs.20,000 Suresh, Equity 50,000 ----------- 70,000 ----------- ASSETS Cash Rs.12,000 Equipments Rs.58,000 ---------- 70,000 ---------- Analysing the Effects of Business Transactions. Investment by OwnerReceipt of LoanPurchase of Office Equipment

  22. LIABILITIES Share Capital Reserve and Surplus Secured Loans Unsecured Loans Current Liabilities and Provisions ASSETS Fixed Assets Investments Current Assets And Loans & Advances Miscellaneous Expenditures Profit & Loss A/C BALANCE SHEETas at 31st March, 2011

  23. BALANCE SHEETas at 31st March, 2011 SOURCES OF FUNDS • Shareholders’ Fund • Loan Funds APPLICATION OF FUNDS • Fixed Assets • Investments • Current Assets, Loans & Advances Less Current Liabilities & Provision • Miscellaneous Expenditure

  24. BALANCE SHEETas at 31st March, 2012 EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Note No. Current Previous • Shareholders’ Fund • Share Application Money pending allotment • Non-current Liabilities • Current Liabilities ASSETS • Non-current Assets • Fixed Assets • Non-current Investments • Deferred Tax Assets (net) • Long term loans and advances • Other non-current assets • Current Assets • Current Investments • Inventories • Trade receivables • Cash and cash equivalents • Short-term loans and advances • Other current assets

  25. PROFIT & LOSS A/Cfor the year ending 31st March 2011. I. Income II. Expenditure III. Profit before Tax IV. Provision for Taxation V. Profit after Tax VI. Balance b/f from last year VII. Profit available for appropriation Appropriations: Dividends, Reserves VIII. Balance transferred to Balance Sheet

  26. PROFIT & LOSS STATEMENTfor the year ending 31st March 2012 I. Revenue from operations II. Other income III. Total Revenue IV. Expenses ……………. V. Profit before exceptional and extraordinary items and tax VI. Exceptional Items VII. Profit before extraordinary items and tax • Extraordinary items • Profit before tax • Tax expense: Current tax, Deferred tax • Profit/(loss) for the period from continuing operations • Profit/(loss) from discontinuing operations • Tax expense of discontinuing operations • Profit/(loss) from discontinuing operations (after tax) • Profit/(loss) for the period • Earnings per equity share: Basic, Diluted

  27. CASH FLOW STATEMENTfor the period ending on March 31, 2012 • Cash flow from operating activities • Cash flow from investing activities • Cash flow from financing activities • Net cash increase (decrease) in cash & CE • Cash & CE at beginning of the period • Cash & CE at the end of the period.

  28. PRODUCT MARKET FORCES Competitors, Customers CAPITAL MARKET FORCES Investors, Lenders FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND REPORTS REGULATORY FORCES Government, Securities Regulator LABOUR MARKET FORCES Managers, Employees

  29. LIMITATIONS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS • Vegetable Accounting • Focus on past / historical data • Postmortem Analysis • Ignore non-financial information • Ignore HR • Fails to provide all information to stake-holders for their decision making

  30. QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. • Relevance • Reliability • Understandability • Comparability • Consistency • Neutrality • Materiality • Timeliness • Verifiability • Prudence

  31. RECORDING BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS • Accounts • Ledger • Chart of Accounts: Assets Liabilities Shareholders’ Equity Revenues Expenses

  32. DOUBLE ENTRY SYSTEM • Luca Pacioli – 1494 • Dual Aspect • Debit & Credit

  33. LEDGER ‘T’ Account : A Ledger account in simplified form. TITLE OF ACCOUNT Left or Debit side Right or Credit side ANY ASSET / EXPENSE ACCOUNT (Debit) (Credit) Increase Decrease

  34. Ledger ANY LIABILITY / OWNER’S EQUITY / REVENUE ACCOUNT (Debit) (Credit) Decrease Increase Standard Form of Accounts ANY ACCOUNT Date Explanation Ref Debit Credit Balance

  35. JOURNAL GENERAL JOURNAL DATE ACCOUNT TITLE & EXPLANATION L.F DEBIT CREDIT Rs. Rs. 2009 June 1 Cash 1,00.000 Share Capital 1,00,000 Invested Cash June 2 Office Equipment 50,000 Cash 20,000 Creditors 30,000 Purchase of office equipment on part payment

  36. SUB-DIVISIONOF JOURNAL • Cash Book • Purchases Journal • Sales Journal • Purchases Return Journal • Sales Return Journal • Bills Receivable Journal • Bills Payable Journal • Journal Proper

  37. ADVANTAGES • Classification of transactions • Reference becomes easy • Facilitate division of work • More particulars • Responsibility can be fixed • Facilitates checking

  38. PURCHASES JOURNAL Date Name of the Supplier Invoice No. L.F. Amount Remarks

  39. SALES JOURNAL Date Name of the Customer Out ward Invoice No L.F Amount Remarks

  40. THREE COLUMN CASH BOOK

  41. BANK RECONCILATION Cash Book Vs. Pass Book What is shown on the debit side of the Cash Book, appears on the credit side of the Customer’s A/c in Bank’s ledger and vice versa. OVERDRAFT:When cash book shows a credit balance or when pass book shows a debit balance.

  42. CAUSES OF DIFFERENCE: • Cheques issued but not yet presented for payment • Cheques deposited into the bank but not collected • Bank charges • Interest allowed by the bank, if any. • Interest on overdraft. • Amount collected by bank on standing instructions • Payment made by bank as per standing instructions • Direct payments into the bank made by customers • Dishonor of cheques or bill • Errors

  43. BRS Rs. Rs.

  44. TRIAL BALANCE • To check arithmetical accuracy • Equality of Debits & Credits

  45. LOCATING ERRORS • A debit posted in an A/C as a credit or vice versa • An A/C balance incorrectly computed • An A/C balance incorrectly recorded in TB • A debit balance incorrectly recorded as credit balance in TB or vice versa • A balance omitted entirely • The TB incorrectly added • Partial omission of an entry

  46. ERRORS NOT DISCLOSED BY TB • Omission from Books of Accounts • Recording at a wrong amount • Compensating Errors • Posting in correct side but wrong A/C • Recording twice in subsidiary books • Errors of Principle

  47. CORRECTING ERRORS Correcting Entries Suspense Account

  48. MEASURING BUSINESS INCOME • Profits: Life blood – survival & growth • Accountants prefer the term “Net Profit” instead of “Income” • NP = Revenues – Expenses • Gains & Losses • Accounting Period • Accrual Accounting • Matching principle

  49. Measuring Income – Cont. • Adjustment process • Outstanding Expense • Prepaid Expense • Accrued Income • Income Received in Advance

  50. CAPITAL AND REVENUE RULES: • Items of revenue nature : Income Statement. • Items of Capital nature : Balance Sheet. NEEDS: • Calculation of true Profit. • Determination of true Financial Position.