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The Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period Changes and Continuities. Europe‘s position in the World. Europe during the MA: Christian Europe Situation: surrounded by enemies (Huns, Avars, Magyars, Mongoles, Arabs, Ottomans...)

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The Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period Changes and Continuities


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    1. The Middle Ages and the Early Modern PeriodChanges and Continuities

    2. Europe‘s position in the World • Europe during the MA: Christian Europe • Situation: surrounded by enemies (Huns, Avars, Magyars, Mongoles, Arabs, Ottomans...) • Late MA: partly integrated (through Christianization, e.g. Magyars/Hungarians, Slavs, e.g. Poles), partly defeated (Arabs, Reconquista) • From 15th century: consolidation, European expansion

    3. Europe‘s cultural dynamism • Rooted in MA • Origin: dualism between spiritual and profane world, i.e. church and state • Reason: church as relict from ancient Rome, confronted with newly emerging world of medieval European nations • Consequence: argumentative competition for authority, enhances culture of argument, critique and rationalism

    4. Medieval roots of Early Modern developments • Reference to ancient legacy • „Interfaces“: medieval monasteries with libraries, preserving ancient writings, Latin „lingua franca“ esp. in church, medieval universities, Roman buildings/ruins all over Europe • Beginnings of capitalism in mediterranian trade since ca. 12th century

    5. Perception of the changes • Generally no conscious transition from MA to EMP by common people (no fundamental changes in quotidien life) • Educated elites expect upcoming of a new age (Petrarcha) in recurrence to „golden“ Antiquity • Present times perceived as dark and barbaric

    6. What‘s new in EMP? • No clear breakpoint for its beginning: instead transitional period from about 1300-1600 • Economy: capitalism, professionalization, expansion • Art & literature: humanism, renaissance, profanity • Politics: Territories, colonialization • Religion: increasing critisism, Reformation • Technology: book-print, science • The documentary age

    7. Read Cameron pages 29-62