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CFD Prediction of Liquid Flow through a 12-Position Modular Sampling System. Tony Bougebrayel, PE, PhD Engineering Analyst Swagelok Co. AGENDA. How is the driving pressure consumed? Why do liquids require more driving pressure? Predicting driving pressure for a conventional system

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Cfd prediction of liquid flow through a 12 position modular sampling system

CFD Prediction of Liquid Flow through a 12-Position Modular Sampling System

Tony Bougebrayel, PE, PhD

Engineering Analyst

Swagelok Co.


Agenda
AGENDA Sampling System

  • How is the driving pressure consumed?

  • Why do liquids require more driving pressure?

  • Predicting driving pressure for a conventional system

  • What is CFD?

  • CFD application to a 12-position modular system

  • Results: CFD vs. Actual

  • Conclusion


How is the driving pressure consumed
How is the driving pressure consumed? Sampling System

  • Momentum Loss:

    Pipe size reduction

    Control Components (valves, filters, check valves, meters, gages…)

    Entry and exit effects (velocity profile)

    Contraction/Expansion

    Directional Changes (elbows, Ts..)

  • Potential Energy: Height

  • Viscous Losses: Boundary Layer formation

  • Turbulent Energy

Modular systems experience Momentum, Viscous, and Turbulent losses


Driving liquids
Driving Liquids Sampling System

  • Flow in a straight pipe

Darcy’s equation: P = .000216 x f x  x L x Q2 / d5

  • fαRe,ε(Re=  U d/)

  • ↑Re↓ f↑ P↑

  • ↑Re↑ f↓ P↑

  • 10x increase in  yields 71% increase in P

  • 10x increase in  yields in 580% increase in P

¤

¤

Density is dominant in straight pipes

f values taken for smooth pipes flowing at 104 and 105 Re


Cfd prediction of liquid flow through a 12 position modular sampling system

Viscous terms Sampling System

Local

acceleration

Momentum terms

Piezometric pressure gradient

Driving Liquids

  • For Non-Uniform Geometry

Navier-Stokes Equations (Incompressible, Laminar, in 3D Cartesian Coordinates)

Both Density and Viscosity affect 2nd order terms


Conventional system predicting driving pressure
Conventional System: Sampling SystemPredicting Driving Pressure

Bernoulli’s Equation (mechanical energy along a streamline)

z1 + 144 p1/1 + v12/2g = z2 + 144 p2/2 + v22/2g + hL

Potential Pressure Kinetic TotalEnergy Energy Energy Head Loss

Where, hL = K v2 / 2g

Ki = f L / D(Ki: Flow Resistance)

Ktotal = Ki

L / D: Equivalent pipe length for non-pipes i.e. valves, fittings

Flow resistance approach in systems design


Conventional system predicting driving pressure1
Conventional System: Sampling SystemPredicting Driving Pressure

K values are empirical

Courtesy of Exxon Mobil


Pressure required for a mpc

Flow Sampling System

Flow

Pressure Required for a MPC

  • Empirical Approach (Cv or K):

    • Cv = 29.9 d2 / k1/2

    • (1/Cv-total)2 = Σ (1/Cv-i)2

  • Testing

  • CFD

Cv-5

Cv-4

Cv-3

Cv-total < Cv-i

Cv-2

Cv-1


What is cfd
What is CFD? Sampling System

A numerical approach to solving the Governing flow equations over any Geometry and Flow conditions

CFD is used to solve the general form of the flow equations


Cfd the governing equations

Differential Control Volume Sampling System

1

dy

y

dx

x

 [u+(u/y)dy][v+(v/y)dy]dx

u2dy

C.V.

[u+ (u/x)dx]2dy

(u/y)dx|y+dy

uvdx

pdy

[p+(p/x)dx]dy

C.V.

w

(u/y)dx|y

CFD – The Governing Equations

F= d(MU)/dt = u(u/x)dxdy + v(u/y)dxdy

External Forces

Change in Momentum

The flow equations are based on the conservation laws


Cfd the governing equations1

Continuity equation Sampling System

CFD – The Governing Equations

Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Laminar flow

Local

acceleration

Viscous terms

Inertia terms

Piezometric pressure gradient

The N.S. eqs. are highly elliptical and impossible to solve manually


Cfd prediction of liquid flow through a 12 position modular sampling system

X Sampling System1

Discrete Domain

XN

x = Xi+1 - Xi

For a structured grid:

CFD – How does it Work?

Solve: y + y = 0 (1st order PDE)

for 0 x  1

From Taylor’s:

-yi + (1+ x )yi+1 = 0 (3)

Plug into (1):

(Eq. 2): Discretized, Algebraic Equation

Apply equation (3) to the 1-D grid at nodes 1,2,3:

y2

y1

y3

y4

-y1 + (1+ x )y2 = 0 (i=1) (4)

-y2 + (1+ x )y3 = 0 (i=2) (5)

-y3 + (1+ x )y4 = 0 (i=3) (6)

Equations 4, 5, & 6 are 3 equations with 4 unknowns

The B.C. y1=1 completes the system of equations

y

y

x

0

1

j

i

x

Convert the PDE into an Algebraic equation


Cfd prediction of liquid flow through a 12 position modular sampling system

What is CFD? Sampling System

Next, we write the system of equations in a matrix form: [A]{y}={0}

y1= 0 (BC)

y2= 0(4)

y3= 0 (5)

y4= 0 (6)

1 0 0 0

-1 (1+ x ) 0 0

0 -1 (1+ x ) 0

0 0 -1 (1+ x )

  • To solve, is to find [A]-1

  • Much CFD work revolves around optimizing the inversion process

Accuracy is grid dependent


Cfd application to current system
CFD – Application to Current System Sampling System

Check Valve

Switching Valve

Pressure

Pressure

Toggle Shut-off

Pneumatic Switching Valve

Pneumatic Shut-off

ManualShut-off

PneumaticShut-off

Toggle Shut-off

Toggle Shut-off

Flow

Flow


Cfd application to current system1
CFD – Application to Current System Sampling System

Build the Geometry


Cfd application to current system2
CFD – Application to Current System Sampling System

Extract the Fluid volume


Cfd application to current system3
CFD – Application to Current System Sampling System

Create the Mesh: 3.2 million cells


Cfd application to current system4
CFD – Application to Current System Sampling System

  • Set Boundary Conditions

  • Solve


Results
Results Sampling System

Pressure required to drive 300 cc/min through the 12-position system, psi

Pressure required to drive liquid samples through modular systems are in line with available pressure


Results cfd vs actual
Results: CFD vs. Actual Sampling System

CFD predictions are very accurate when fluid characteristics are known


Results density vs viscosity
Results: Density vs. Viscosity Sampling System

Viscosity effects are more prominent than density effects in modular systems

Testing conducted by Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc.


Cfd prediction of liquid flow through a 12 position modular sampling system

Results: Density vs. Viscosity Sampling System

ΔPfluid/ΔPwater≈ (fluid/water)0.5

The Kinematic viscosity compares relatively well to pressure


Conclusion
Conclusion Sampling System

  • Reasonable pressure required to drive typical liquid samples through NeSSITM systems

  • CFD can be employed to accurately predict flow under different conditions

  • The Kinematic viscosity of the liquid sample is a good indicator of its pressure requirement


Questions
Questions Sampling System?