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FRUITS. Fruits. Botanically A fruit is an organ that develops from a flowering plant and contains one or more seeds Culinary A fruit is a perfect snack food, basis of a dessert, colorful sauce or soup. Fruits. Hybrids and Varieties Hybrids

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  2. Fruits • Botanically • A fruit is an organ that develops from a flowering plant and contains one or more seeds • Culinary • A fruit is a perfect snack food, basis of a dessert, colorful sauce or soup

  3. Fruits • Hybrids and Varieties • Hybrids • Result from crossbreeding fruits from different species • Varieties • Result from breeding fruit of the same species that have different qualities or characteristics

  4. Nutrition • Fruits are 75 – 95% water • Low in fat, sodium and protein • Excellent source of fiber (especially the skins!) • Vitamins/Minerals Fruits Provide: • Vitamin C (Citrus, melons, strawberries) • Vitamin A (Deep yellow and green fruits) • Potassium (Bananas, raisins, figs)

  5. Nutrition, Continued • Choose whole or cut up fruits more often than fruit juice. • Air, Heat and Water Can Destroy Nutrients in both Fruits and Vegetables. • Always wash fruits and vegetables to remove pesticides that might remain on the skin.

  6. Serving Size for Fruits • The following are equal to one cup fruit • 1 medium sized fruit banana, orange, apple) • 1 cup canned or fresh fruit • 1 c. 100% juice • 1/2 c. dried fruit

  7. Guidelines for Selecting Fruits • Firm • Free From Decay • Crisp • Smooth • Dense • Free From Bruises • Good Color • Good Smell • In Season (Will Be Cheaper)

  8. Purchasing and Storing Fruits • Purchasing • Most fruits are sold by weight or by count • Fruits are packed in crates, bushels, cases, lugs, or flats • Storing Fruits In: • Cold (Refrigerator) • Dry • Give Them Space

  9. Ripening • Ripening happens when starches found in the fruit break down into sugar(Bananas in the fridge) • This leads to deterioration or spoilage: • Color Lightens • Texture Softens • Decreases in Acidity • Increases in Sweetness

  10. Browning • Browning occurs when the cut surfaces of food reacts with oxygen. • This is called OXIDATION. • To prevent this, cover cut fruits with a liquid containing Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C).

  11. FRUIT Classifications

  12. Berries • Blackberries • Blueberries • Cranberries • Currants • Raspberries • Strawberries • Grapes Fragile cell structure; pulpy and juicy; tiny seeds embedded in flesh

  13. Blackberry Raspberry Cranberry Blueberry

  14. Citrus Grow in warm regions, firm rind and pulpy flesh • Grapefruits • Kumquats • Lemons • Limes • Oranges • Tangerines

  15. Citrus Valencia Oranges Naval Oranges Blood Oranges Tangerines

  16. Stone Fruits/ Drupes • Contain a single seed, or pit, surrounded by juicy flesh. • Apricots • Cherries • Peaches • Nectarines • Plums

  17. Figs Guava Lychees Cape gooseberries Mangosteens Persimmons Pomegranates Prickly pears Rambutans Rhubarb Star fruits Exotics

  18. Pomegranate Prickly Pear Rambutan Star Fruit

  19. Figs Guava Lychee Mangosteen

  20. Melons Hard out surface that is smooth or netted; juicy flesh. • Cantaloupe • Casaba • Crenshaw • Honeydew • Watermelon

  21. Pomes • Smooth skin and an enlarged fleshy area that surrounds the core • Apple • Pear • Kiwi

  22. Fiji Gala Golden Delicious Granny Smith Jonathan McIntosh Pippin (Newton) Red Delicious Rome Winesap Apples

  23. Pears • Anjou • Bartlett • Bosc • Comice • Seckel • Asian

  24. Tropical • Grow in very warm climates; differ in skin composition and seed characteristics. • Bananas • Dates • Kiwis • Mangos • Papayas • Passion fruits • Pineapples

  25. Kiwi Red Papaya Mango Passion Fruit


  27. Vegetables • The term vegetable refers to any herbaceous plant that can be partially or wholly eaten • The plant has no woody tissue • Vegetables contain more starch and less sugar than fruits

  28. Nutrition • Vegetables provide the following Vitamins and Minerals: • Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Vitamin D • Potassium • Folic Acid • Calcium • Magnesium

  29. Nutrition, continued… • Vegetables contain NO cholesterol • They are low in calories, fat and sodium(They are “Nutrient Dense”) • Eat more red, orange and dark green vegetables from the Vegetable Group.

  30. Vegetable Nutrients • Dark Yellow and Dark green vegetables have the most nutrients • Vegetables contain a wide variety of vitamins and minerals, the BEST way to ensure you get all the nutrients is to eat a WIDE VARIETY OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES • EAT THE RAINBOW!

  31. Serving Size for Vegetables • One cup serving of vegetables is: 1 cup raw or cooked vegetables 1 cup juice 2 cups leafy green vegetables

  32. Nutrient Loss • Nutrients can be lost by: • WATER-vit. And min. dissolve in water • AIR –oxidation • HEAT-high heat or over cooking can evaporate or decompose nutrients • PEELING OFF SKIN

  33. Best Cooking Methods for Preserving Nutrients • The two BEST methods are: • Microwaving • Steaming • You can also: • Bake • Stir-Fry • Simmer • Sauté

  34. Five Ways to Preserve Nutrients When Cooking Fruits and Vegetables • Cook in larger pieces • Use small amounts of water • Cook only until “fork” tender • Cook quickly • Save the water used to cook in for soups and gravies (most nutrients dissolve into the water)

  35. Selecting the best vegetables • Good color • Medium size too big may be over mature or tough, too small may be immature, lack flavor • Firm/no wilting • Absence of bruise or decay • Buy in season. More flavor, less expensive

  36. Botanical Classification • Leaves / Greens • Stems and shoots • Roots • Tubers • Bulbs • Seeds • Fruits • Flowers

  37. Leaves:Come from the leaf of the plant. • The Cabbage Family refers to a large number of vegetables used for their heads or flowers • Bok Choy Broccoli • Brussels sprouts Cauliflower • Head cabbages Red cabbage • Kale Kohlrabi • Napa cabbage Savoy

  38. Bok Choy Brussels sprouts Kale Napa cabbage

  39. Kohlrabi • Savoy Botanical: Leaves

  40. Greens • Lettuce • Mustard • Collards • Sorrel • Spinach • Swiss chard • Turnip greens

  41. Mustard Collards Sorrel Swiss chard

  42. Stalks/ Stems • Come from the stem of the plant • Artichokes • Asparagus • Celery • Fennel • Hearts of palm • Bamboo shoots • Nopales

  43. Fennel Artichoke Nopales Hearts of palm

  44. Examples of botanical classifications • Roots: • Come from the root of the plant and can be eaten raw or cooked. • Examples-Carrots, turnips, and radishes. • Tubers • A large underground stem that stores nutrients. • Examples-Potatoes and yams

  45. Roots and Tubers • Beets • Carrots • Celery roots • Jicama • Parsnips • Radishes • Rutabagas • Turnips • Potatoes

  46. Celery roots Jicama Parsnips Rutabagas

  47. Bulbs • Bulbs: • Have layers of fleshy leaves surrounding the underground part of the stem. • Bulb onions • Garlic • Leeks • Scallions • Shallots

  48. Leeks Scallions Shallots Garlic

  49. Pods and Seeds • Seeds • Come from the plant part that grows new plants. • Corn • Legumes • Dried beans • Fresh beans • Shelling peas • Edible pea pods • Okra

  50. Okra Snow Peas Sugar Snap Peas Shelled peas

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