Lesson 4 Principle Wine Regions of the World. A unique gift from nature and the earth’s geology. 4.0 Introduction. 4.1 Argentina 4.2 Australia 4.3 Austria 4.4 Bulgaria 4.5 Canada 4.6 Chile
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A unique gift from nature and the earth’s geology
4.8 Czech Republic
4.9 England and Wales
4.19 New Zealand
4.22 South Africa
4.25 United States of America
ReferencesLesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World Lesson Overview
On completion of this lesson the learner will be
expected to be able to;
Vineyards and grape varieties
Vineyards: The vineyards of Argentina lie above 500 metres above sea level with the exception of Salta (in the sub tropical north), which is close
to the town of Cafayate those vineyards reach a height to 2,000 metres. The majority of the vineyards are planted in the parral, or pergola system
because of the heat, this helps keep the grapes away from the scorching ground heat.
Grape varieties and regions grown: Malbec (Mendoza, Rio Negro) produces full-bodied, bramley red wines with the dark purple colour, rich
tannins, peppery and spicy flavours.
Major regions and wines of Argentina:
Argentina was the first South American country to introduce a DOC system in 1992. Mendoza: only region with a hierarchy of appellations,
divided into five regions and a larger number of departments and then subdivisions. San Juan: warmer climates produces light wines, lots of
vermouths and grape concentrate. Famatina: far north, very hot contains co-operative cellars, the La Rioja province wines although popular are
labelled Famatina Valley because of Spain. Cafayate: the Torrontes (white) grape reins here in this Salta province. High growing altitudes help
develop aromas and flavours. Cabernet Sauvignon also grows well here.
Major Australian Regions
Hunter Valley Semillon, Barossa Shiraz, Connawarra Cabernet Sauvignon, Clare and Eden Valley Rieslings,
Adelaide Hills Chardonnay, Yarra Valley Pinot Noir, Margaret River Cabernet Sauvignon, Margaret River Chardonnay,
Rutherglen Liqueur Muscat.
Much of the Austrian wine is consumed locally while Germany is it’s biggest export market. Nno country in Europe has
changed its attitudes and upgraded its standards so much in the past decade as Austria.
Austrian Wine Laws
Completely revamped and introduced in 1993, the classification system for the Austrian wine is similar to that of Germany,
for example chaptalisation is forbidden for quality wines and the wine label information is also similar for both countries.
Classification system for Austrian quality wines.
Austrian Vineyards and Grape Varieties
The vineyards are mainly concentrated to the east of Austria, 85% of the wines are white and dry made from the
indigenous ‘Gruner Veltliner’ (broad variety of flavours) and other varieties, including the noble Riesling (grown for the
quality wines giving dry full bodied wines with ripe peachy fruits), Welschriesling (susceptible to noble rot, produces
excellent sweet wines in southern Austria),
Major Austrian Regions and Wines
Large amount of money invested in recent years Bulgaria’s winemakers are now producing quality wines. Wine Act of 1978 classified its wines as follows;
Bulgarian major wines / grape varieties and wine regions
For administrative reasons the country is split into five regions; Black Sea Region, Danube Plain Region, Thracian
Valley Region (East and West) and the Struma Valley Region. Of the international red varieties Cabernet Sauvignon wines
from Bulgaria was always the major export favourite Merlot and local varieties Mavrud, Melnik, Pamid and Gamza. The
whites include Chardonnay, Aligote, Dimiat, Rkatsiteli and Muscat
Ottonel. Cabernet Sauvignon (Danube Plain, West and East Thracian Valley), Merlot (East Thracian Valley), Melnik
(Struma Valley Region), Chardonnay (Black Sea Region).
Canada: 7,821km from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, numerous microclimates produced by mountain ranges and bodies of water.
Wine Regions: Southern Ontario around the Great Lakes, most notably Niagara Peninsula and the Okanagen Valley of
British Columbia. Ontario in Lake Erie North Shore and Prince Edward County. British Columbia, Naramata Beach,
Simikameen Valley, Vancouver Island and Kootenay’s. Quebec, Monteregie, Eastern Townships wineries Les Contans de
L’est, Lower Laurentials wineries – basses Laurential, Laurentials wineries and Quebec City. Nova Scotia Annapolis
Valley, Malaagash Peninsula, La Have River Valley and Bear river valley.
Grape varieties: (a) European vinifera – Chardonnay, Riesling, Pinot Noir, (b) Amercian or labruscana – Concord and
Niagara (not good grapes), (c ) Hybrids – Baco noir, Marechal Foch, l’Acadie, Leon Millot.
Ice wine: began in Germany,Canada now biggest producer, regions most famous are Niagara Peninsula of Ontario,
Okangen Valley of British Columbia. Grapes are picked at the coldest moment of a winter’s night, as the grape freezes new
sensations of sweet juice are created.
Quality Control:VQA Ontario – designated wine authority for Ontario. Originally 3 primary Viticultural Areas or
appellations of origin: Niagara Peninsula, lake Erie North Shore and Price Edward County. Now they are 8 Viticultural Areas
(15,000 acres of vineyards) recognised located in southern Ontario and British Columbia they account for 98% of Canada’s
Chile’s Wine Classification
Chile uses a uniquely flexible classification system for its vineyard regions, which is based on four tiers (wines may name as its source any of these
four tiers), which include;
Chile’s major regions and wines
Most Notable wine producing regions: Beijing, Yantai, Zhangiakou in Hebei, Yibin in Sichuan, tonghua in Jilin, Taiyuan in Shanxi and
Ningxia. Largest producing region: Yantai Penglai (140 wineries producing 40% of China’s wine).
Grape varieties:Chinese Government set up 2 national grape germplasm respositories (Zhengzhou fruit Research Institute of the China
academy of Agricultural sciences – located at Zhengzhou, Henan province) and Institute of Fruit research of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural
Sciences located at Taigu, shanxi province). Both house 1,300 grape varieites for possible cultivation.
Popular Varieties cultivated include: Table grapes: Zaomeigui, Zhengzhuo, Zaohong, Fenghuang No 51, Jing Zaojing, Shangdong Zaohong,
Jingxiu, Jingya, Zizhenxiang, Shengxiu, Jingyu, Fenghou. Wine grapes: Beichun, Gonliang No 1, Shuangyou, zuoshan No 1. International
varieties: Chardonnay, Irtalian Risling, Chenin Blanc, cabernet Franc, cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Gamay Noir, Gewurztraminer, Sauvignon
Blanc, Pinot Noir.
High quality Chinese wines:(just a few samples) Huadong’s - Chardonnay, Huaxia - Dry Red, Changyu’s - Cabernet, Beijing’s - Dragon
Moravia: (little villages with wine cellars without permanent population), sub regions include;
Bohemia: (northernmost wine region in Europe, vineyards located around Melnik, Litomerice and Most, vineyards are
scattered and spread over protected slopes near rivers – the Vltava, Elbe, Ohre, Berounka, sub regions include;
Wineries breakdown: East Anglia (66), South East (145), central South (96), Midlands (91), North (18), South West
(120), Wales (22), Scotland (4), Channel Islands (5).
Chardonnay (20.6%), Pinot Noir (18.6%), Bacchus (9.6%). Other varieties: (White) Auxerrois, Faberrebe, Huxelrebe,
Kerner, Madeleine, Angevine, Muller Thurgau, optima, Orion, Ortega, Pheonix, Regner, Reichsteiner, Rwagier,
Schonburger, Seyval Blanc, siegerrebe, Wurzer. (Red) Dornfelder, dunkelfeder, Pinot Meunier, regent, rondo, Trimphe.
Labelling and legislation:
Key facts regarding Alsace: (also chapter 4 – pp. 88-89)
Wine growing in Alsace / Grape varieties: (also chapter 4 - pp. 89-90)
Classifications for The Wines of Alsace – five main Appellations Controlees.
In 1962 Alsace was granted AC for the whole region; this originally granted on three (3) AC levels.
The above three ACs covered the whole Alsace region until 1975 when another AC was introduced.
Wine growing in Bordeaux(chapter 4 – p.92)
1855 Classification of the Medoc - still in use today (chapter 4 – p. 93).
Left Bank of river Gironde Appellations(chapter 4 – p. 93)
Right Bank of river Gironde Appellations(chapter 4 – p. 94)
Between Garonne and the Dordogne Appellations(chapter 4 – p. 94)
Burgundy’s famous white wines: Chablis, Macon Blanc, Meursault, Montrachet, Pouilly Fuisse.
Burgundy’s famous red wines: Beaune, Bourgogne, Gevrey Chambertin, Macon, Nuits Saint Georges, Pommard, Vosne-Romanee.
Location and Climate: Burgundy is to the Northeast of France, its landlocked. Its climate is continental, no sea influence, severe winters, hot
summers – unreliable rain. Weather: Frost and hail are major hazards. Frequent summer rains make area prone to grey rot
Burgundy main wine growing areas are; Chablis / Cote de Nuits / Cote de Beaune / Cote Chalonnais / Maconnais / Beaujolais.
Main Soils: Chablis: limestone overlaid with Kimmeridgian clay, Core d’Or: limestone mixed with marl, Beaujolais: granite.
Grape varieties: North Burgundy: Black - Pinot Noir, White - Chardonnay, Aligote. South Burgundy: Black - Gamay, White -
Grape growing: North: high-density planting, Guyot trained. The best vineyards are on the east – or southeast – facing slopes
Overall Classification for Burgundy Wines:
Burgundy – three major levels: (1) Domaines – family dynasties, (2) Negociants – shippers, most important they decide on the wines grade,
they buy the fruit, wine, mature it and sell it, (3) Co-ops – lower areas, no middle manthey make and sell the wine and share the profits, basic
wines. AC is granted to demarcated areas – knowldege is crucial. Bourgogne AC (reds: PN, Gamay, Cesar, Tressot), (whites: Chardonnay.
Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire AC (ordinary wine)
Main Areas of Burgundy: Chablis / Core d’Or / Cote Nuit / Cote de Beaune / Cote Chalonnaise / Cote Maconnais – Macon / Cote Beaujolais.
Further detailed information: (Chapter 4 – pp. 96-100)
68,000 acres (27,500 hectares) in Champagne, with 19,000 proprietors; it is split up among 8,000 holdings of a
hectare or less. Only 10% belongs to the great exporting firms.
Soils:Belemnita(rich in rare fossil): magic chalk on the hills and slopes, Micraster: magic chalk on the plains or flat land.
These unique chalky thin sub soils (often only 60cm) are excellent for drainage, they reflect heat and are excellent for
storage (cellars are complete cities underground). The chalk also helps the Ph balance. The chalky subsoil absorbs the rain
and also helps to reflect the heat of the sun. The topsoil is gravely which helps to aerate the roots.
Main grape varieties: Pinot Noir (gives backbone and structure), Pinot Meunier (gives fruit and aroma, its late budding
and early ripening makes it better suited to this northern climate,), Chardonnay (gives finesse and elegance) are the main
grapes with the Arbanne, Petit Meslier, Pinot Blanc (used as salt and pepper). The Pinot Meunier is especially used in bad
weather to add fruit and aroma.
Main Areas:Montagne de Reims, Vallee de la Marne, Cote de Blancs
Training systems: 2 high training systems (AC regulations) these are; Cordon de Royat (high) , Guyot:
(single and double systems)
Champagne making – the process: Methode Champenois: This unique method can only be used with
Champagne. For all other sparkling wines using this method they use the term methode traditionale. (chapter 4 – pp. 101-104).
Styles of Champagne: NV: Non-Vintage, V: Vintage, Blanc de Blancs: Champagne made entirely from
white grapes (Chardonnay),Blanc de Noir: Champagne made entirely from black grapes, AC Coteaux
Champenois: Created in 1974, this AC covers still wines from the Champagne area.
Champagne: Cuvee Prestige: usually named after someone special in the company (i.e. Louise Pommery). Cremant Method: not allowed to be
used in the Champagne region, must be 9 months in contact with the lees. Cremant: half sparkling, or creaming.
Champagne bottle sizes: (quarter bottle, half bottle, bottle), Magnum: 2 bottles in one, Jeroboam: 4 bottles in one, Rehoboam: 6 bottles
in one, Methuselah: 8 bottles in one, Nebuchadnezzar: 20 bottles in one.
Corsica: Grapes, appellations
Jura and Savoie (the mountain wine of the Alps)
The wines of Jura and Savoie can be expensive because they are labour intensive due to their hillside locations at the
Alps, some its vineyards are found at 850 metres. In this region they also grow old grape varieities some stretching back
Savoie: background, grapes, appellations
Jura: background, grapes and appellations
The valley of Loire is spread into four main vineyard areas or (sub regions) which stretch across northern France from West to East Nantais,
Anjou, Saumur, Touraine, Central Vineyards.The Loire valley is famous for light summery, dry and medium dry white wines,
Including Muscadet, Sancerre and sparkling Saumur. Anjou is best known for its Rose and its medium dry and sweet white wines.
Touraine produces light, crisp white and red wines as well as white Vouvray, which can be still or sparkling.
Loire Valley best known wines. (Chapter 4 – pp. 107-108)
Loire Valley – key wines(Chapter 4 – pp. 107-108)
Location: southeast France , Climate: North: Southern continental, South: Mediterranean. The real danger here is the Mistral wind (comes for 6-9 days) a major
wind that comes down the whole Rhone Valley and has the ability to do real damage. Soils: North: granite, decomposing schist soil, South: various (quartz pebbles,
clay and alluvial) and ‘pudding-stone’ pebbles in Chateauneuf-du-Pape. Grape growing: North: steep, sloped vineyards with vines staked to aid wind protection.
South: flatter vineyards, windbreaks used to aid wind protection.
Winemaking:Lighter: carbonic maceration, fuller styles: traditional fermentation and oak maturation.
The Rhone Valley produces 95% red wine, some Vins Deux Naturals
Rhone Valley sub divides into 2: Northern Rhone and Southern Rhone are they split by the nugget, which splits the valley naturally into two parts
Northern Rhone vineyard areas are on steep narrow gauges most of the wine is produced on the right side of river
Southern Rhone vineyards are spread out on both sides of the river
Northern Rhone produces the best wines (5% of total Rhone production) and the south produces the most wines (95%. of total Rhone production)
Northern Rhone: location, soils and appellations
Southern Rhone: location, soils and appellations
Grape varieties: Grenache grape is the most important in the southern Rhone but it is no good on its own the grapes listed below bring out its best. Grenache can
make 15% no problem, if left to its own devices but people usually don’t want big wines. Black: Grenache Noir, Syrah (gives colour), Mourvedre (gives fruity taste),
Cinsault. White: Grenache Blanc, Clairette (gives acidity), Marsanne, Rousanne, Muscat (grapy, fruits, very ripe grapes), Picpoule (little obscure).
Key wines: Cotes du Rhone, Cotes du Rhone-Villages, Vacqueyras, Gigondas, Chateauneuf-du-pape, Tavel, Rhone Satellites: Costieres de Nimes.
AC Classification for Southern Rhone wines.
More than a third of all French wine is grown in the area (Roussillon, Corbieres, Minervois and Languedoc known as the Midi.
With over 865,000 acres (350,000 hectares) it is the biggest vineyard region in the world. Location: Southern Mediterranean France.
Provence: east of Rhone to Italian border. Languedoc-Roussillon: west of Rhone to Spanish border. Climate: Mediterranean.
Provence: location, soils and appellations
Languedoc – Roussillon (also called the Midi): location, soils and appellations
Fortified wines or Vins Doux Naturels : Languedoc: Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de St-
Jean de Minervois. Roussillon: Maury, Riversaltes and Muscat de Riversaltes, Banyuls.
Key ACs to look for are; Fitou, Corbieres, Costieres de Nimes, Cotes du Roussillon, Faugeres, Minervois, St Chinian and Coteaux
Red: AC Cahors, AC Cotes de Buzet, AC Gaillac.
The Micro Technique: Micro-oxygenation (called microbullage) developed by Patrick
Ducournau of la Chapelle Lenclos, this process introduces O2 (a timbel per litre, this
slows oxygenation in the wine and microfuses the wine, helps reduce painful tannin levels
achieved in this region.
SW France (sometimes referred to Bordeaux look-alikes) : main appellations: AC
Bergerac: Red, rose and white, AC Cotes de Duras, AC Buzet, AC Cahors, AC Madiran,
Vin de Pays des Cotes de Gascogne, AC Gaillac.
Background: German wines are full of character and interest unlike most wines they were made not for drinking with
food, but for social occasions. Germany’s vineyards lay along the river Rhine and its tributaries. They are scant in the
extreme south and thickest in Rheinland-Pfalz near the French border. German wines are all about sweetness.
Climate and weather: Germany has a Northern continental climate, this variable weather (for example spring frosts,
heavy rains in July and August) gives rise to vintage variations but the long autumns encourage noble rot.
Grape varieties:black Spatburgunder, Dornfelder , white Riesling (accounts for a quarter of all plantings, Muller
Thurgau, Kerner, Scheurebe.
Vinification: Chaptalisation allowed with the exception of QmP wines, Sussreserve (sterile grape juice) could be used for
sweetening wines at bottling.
Key Areas and Wines: Mosel-Saar-Ruwer: Bernkastel, Piesport, Saar, Ruwer, Nahe: Schlossbockelheim, Rheingau:
Rudesheim, Hochheim, Johannesburg, Rheinhessen: Theinterrace, Nierstein, Pfalz: Forst, Deidesheim, Baden:
Kaiserstuhl-Tuniberg. (Further information: Chapter 4 – pp. 118)
Riesling: Germanys most famous noble variety was first discovered in the Johannesburg region, other versions of this
famous grape which should not be confused as they are poor imitations include the Welsh Riesling (Austrian), Laski
Rizling (Slovenia), and the Olaszrizling (Austrian).
German wine classification: Quality wines – 2 top levels: Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA),
Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (QmP) (Further information: Chapter 4 – pp. 115). 2 bottom levels: Deutscher Tafelwein, Landwein
(simliar to Vin de Pays in France, can come from one of 17 designated regions).
IP number: all German wines must have an IP number for total traceability and quality indication.
QmP Level: at this quality level only natural sugar is allowed not Chaptalisation.
Liebfraumilch: this famous QbA wine from Germany, actually got it’s name from medieval times and is always made from a blend of four
grape varieties (Silvaner, Kerner, Muller-Thurgau and Riesling-only a sprinkle of this one). Liebfruammilch can come from 1 of these four areas
Rheinhessen, Rheinpflatz, Nahe, or Rheingau. The top producers are single vineyard using more Riesling and Gerwurtztraminer in the mix.
Oechsle: this is the scale used to indicate the sugar content of grape juice.
Greek Wine Laws
Major Greek Regions and Wines
Hungary’s vast country is dominated by the largest lake in Europe, Lake Balaton. The soil is ideal for cultivation of red variety Kadarka and white
Olaz Riesling. Tokaj with its volcanic soil, river mist and the long dry warm autumn create excellent conditions for ripening of the strong acidic
Furmint and the softer perfumed Harslevelu grapes which help to crate Tokaj the famous dessert wine which should always be slightly chilled.
Many regard it as an excellent tonic.
Hungarian Wine Laws
Major Hungarian Regions and Wines
Key wines: Tokaji (Furmint – powerful white wine grape gives flavours of apples when young, developing into nuts and honey in maturity,
Harslevelu – linden leaf, a late ripening grape prone to botrytis, aromatic with flavours of orange blossom, great for this dessert wine).
Bull’s Blood (red blend mainly Kekfrankos which gives light purple-coloured wine with high acidity) this famous wine grown in the Eger region.
Varietal wines (reds and whites with Chardonnay, Irasi Oliver is an Muscat cross, Pinot Gris, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon).
Hungary divides into three board areas in relation to its vineyards
Hungary’s 22 wine regions lie within the three board areas
Tokaji is produces Hungary’s most prestigious wines it is named after the local town of Tokaj. These wines takes are generally spilt into two
groups, the quality wines, bottled into 75cl bottles, and the special quality wines, bottled into the traditional 50cl dump bottles.
Wine Regions: Six main wine regions (listed below), high heat and humidity of the far east half of the country limits
Grape production: India is home to several indigenoustable grape varieites (most common are the Anabeshahi,
Arkavati and Arkashyam), non-native grapes include Bangalore Blue (isabella) and Gulabi (Black Muscat). Turkish grape
Sultana (most widely planted grape in India covers over half of the 148,000 acres planted. Imported French varieties
(Sauvignon Blanc, Zinfandel, Chenin Blanc, Clairette Blanche).
Wine regions:Five vine-growing regions, 50,000 dunams of vineyards, 80% of these located in Shomron, Samson and
Primary concern in Israeli wine production:
Italian Wine Laws:Italian wine laws is set on four different quality levels starting at the top level with;
North West Italy produces red, white and sparkling wines, it divides into 4 regions (Liguria, Valle d’Aosta, Lombardia,
Piemonte) in terms of quality and the wines are always named after the Commune or area where the vine grows.
North East Italy this region relies less on tradition and embraces modern ideas. It consists of 3 major zones;
Southern Italy and the Islands
Japan has a long history of vine cultivation, Yamanashi is the most important 100km west of Tokyo surrounded by
mountains (including Mount Fuji). 40% of Japan’s domestic wine production comes from this region’s 80 wineries.
Main regions for wine production: Hokkaido and Yamanashi, both fostered strong production with the ‘one
village one speciality movement’.
Grape varieties / wines:Muscat Bailey A – widely used red grape developed in Japan by Zenbei Kawakami (mix
of Bailey and Muscat Hamburg types. Koshu(Japan’s signature grape variety) yields delicate dry white wines, Yamanshi
region accounts for 95% of Koshu plantings (480 hectares).
Quality control: ‘Mark of origin’ legal designation for wine produced in Japan similar to AOC.No nationwide
organization of legal designation, anything domestically fermented or imported can be labelled ‘Japanese wine’ .
Independent self-governing municipal bodies have begun systems of regional appellation (i.e. Nagano Prefecture’s ‘
Appellation Control System’ and Koshu’s ‘ ‘Wine Domain of Origin certificate Regulation’ .
Pearl of the Balkans, contains diverse terrain, while part of former Yugoslavia it was a major wine producer. 1980s
accounted for two thirds of Yugoslav wine production. After the breakup wine production decreased from 1.8mil
hectolires to 447,000 in 2002.
Wine growing regions
Grape varieties (common in cultivation includes a large proportion of indigenous varieties, and common Central Europe and the Balkans
Grape varieties, regions NZ
Wine Regions of NZ
South Island: Marlborough big SB area (north east corner around the town of Blenheim, sunny climate, excellent vineyards on the
Wairau Valley (stony soils). Chardonnay and Pinot Noir also planted here used for sparkling wines.
North Island: Auckland region: mainly red wines (heavy clay soils).
Location and size: south west Europe, As a land mass Portugal is 1/7 the size of the whole Iberian Peninsula.
Climate , weather and major rivers: south (Mediterranean), inland (continental), near the coast (maritime), because no place in
Portugal is further than 150 km from the sea, rain can be a problem near this coast. The major rivers Minho, Douro, Mondego, Tejo
and the Guadiana help temper these various climatic conditions throughout the country.
Soils: Bairrada (limestone and clay), Douro Valley and Dao (granite and schist), the coast (sandy Colores soil).
Grape varieties: Black (Baga, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Nacional, Trincadeira, Periquita), White (Loureiro, Alvarinho, Encruzado).
Viticulture and vinification: the unqiue vine training used is called Ramisco (this involves bending the branch into the sandy soil
where it grows up as a vine so there is no need for grafting and no phylloxera). Tradtional fermentation and use of old casks, modern
fermentation with temperature control, use of stainless steel and new oak.
Portuguese Wine Laws
Portugal revised its wine legislation in 1999 to upgrade a lot of IPR wines, these IPR and DOC wines are identified by a paper sela
(Selo de Origem), which is usually placed on the back label of the bottle. Overall there are four different quality levels of wines from
Two further terms are used to indicate quality, Reserva when stated on the label, indicates that the wine has come from a single
vintage and have passed a tasting panel plus if it a DOC grade, it must have a high percentage of natural alcohol than the minimum
decreed by law for this DOC wine. Garrafeira indicates the wines ageing which is traditionally two years in cask and one in bottle for
reds and six months equally in cask and bottle for white wines.
Major regions and wines of Portugal
Northern Portugal’s major wines
Southern Portugal’s major wines
This country is geographically spilt by the L shaped Carpathian Mountains, which occupy
almost half of the country. The most widely known wines come from the vineyards of
Dealul Mare, which lie on the south-facing slopes of the Carpathian foothills, these red
wines are made from Pinot Noir, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and local varieties.The area
of Murfatlar with its limestone soils also produce quality white wines from Chardonnay and
Pinot Gris and soft reds from Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Most Romanian wines are
sold as varietals.
The Romanian wine grading hierarchy is as follows in decreasing order;
South Africa wine laws
The South African wine legislation order is as follows
South Africa Grape varieties and Principal regions
Consejo Regulator – ageing for Spanish wines
Major Regions and DO wines of Spain
The major DO regions of Spain are grouped together into six geographical regions, each containing
similarities between their climates and grape varieties. Upper Ebro (Navarra, Rioja, Somontano),
Catalonia (Catalonia, Coasters del Segre, Penedes, Priorato, Tarragona), The Duero Valley (Ribera del
Duero, Rueda, Toro), Levante (Valencia), Castilla-La Mancha (La Mancha, Valdepenas), Southern
quarter of Spain – Andalusia.
(chapter 4 – pp. 137-141 detailed DOC explanations for discussion)
The vineyards of Switzerland are all concentrated and divided into tiny holdings around the country’s lakes and rivers
and are often steep and terraced – unfortunately the high cost of production makes them expensive in relation to their
relative value. Nearly half the wines produced are red, both reds and whites tend to be delicate and fresh.
Swiss Wine Classifications and Laws
Swiss wines are known by regional names relating to grape varieties and qualities as well as to geographical origin. any
Swiss wine, which is not completely dry, must by law carry the words ‘legerement doux or ‘avec sucre residuel’. There
are three significant quality categories as follows;
Switzerland Wine Regions and Grape varieties
The American wine market is led by fashion and this unfortunately leads to instant demand problems for example Merlot’s
links to health and well being and more recently the fascination with Rhone style wines.
United States classification for wines
Wine laws are placed at two levels, the Federal Law and the State Law.
Major Regions and wines of North America
California is about 1,100 kilometres long , California’s major wines – varietal: Chardonnay (Sonoma, Monterey and
Carneros cool areas produces good Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon (Napa, Sonoma): Merlot (Napa, Sonoma,
Monterey), Pinot Noir (Carneros, Sonoma), Sauvignon Blanc (Napa), White Zinfandel (Central Valley). Zinfandel (Sonoma,
Sierra Foothills, Santa Cruz).
Mexico and the Southwest States of North America
The Pacific North-West
Washington State:Divided into two by the high ever-snowy Cascade Range, the majority of
vineyards are based around the infertile valleys of Columbia and its tributary, the Yakima and also at
Walla Wallla to the east.
Oregon: All of Oregon has less than one third of Napa’s acreage, this area has concentrated on the
Pinot Noir from the Willamette Valley, but if search hard you will find Oregon Riesling and Cabernet
Sauvignon, plus the other smaller regions of Umpqua and Rogue valleys.
New York State: 120 wineries and 3,350 acres of vinifera vines in the seven New York State AVAs,
these are divided between four distinct regions.