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Recap. What is Evaluation Essay? Evaluation or Review; Similar yet Different Steps for writing Evaluation Essay Topic Selection What are you Evaluating How to Write an Evaluation Essay Dos and Don'ts Common Mistakes Pre-Writing Exercise for Evaluation Essay. Lecture 15.

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  • What is Evaluation Essay?
  • Evaluation or Review; Similar yet Different
  • Steps for writing Evaluation Essay
  • Topic Selection
  • What are you Evaluating
  • How to Write an Evaluation Essay
  • Dos and Don'ts
  • Common Mistakes
  • Pre-Writing Exercise for Evaluation Essay
so what is all this cause and effect stuff
So what is all this cause and effect stuff ?
  • You may have a topic or an assignment that shows connections between events or concepts.
    • For example, some colleges do not have enough classes to meet the student demand. As a result (effect) students are spending more time and money toward college than needed in the past.
      • This example shows how you can argue that one event directly leads to another and so on
  • You may also dig deeper into the causes of this example by finding that colleges do not have adequate budget or funding for the classes needed.
  • Thus, the causes and effects are both equally important in analyzing the chain of connections between events .

Cause/Effect Essay

The cause/effect essay explains why or how some event happened, and what resulted from the event.

  • A cause essay usually discusses the reasons why something happened
  • An effect essay discusses what happens after a specific event or circumstance.

Examples: A cause/effect essay may explain . . .

* why a volcano erupts, and what happens afterwards;

cause and effect e ssay
Cause and Effect Essay


How specific conditions or events translate into certain effects

how one thing leads to another

How one/multiple conditions becomes the cause of several consequences

so where do i start
So where do I start?


  • Perhaps you can remember when you were little and you loved to play the “why” game.
  • No matter what people said, you asked “why?” You might have asked until your parents and siblings ran out of answers or until they said “because I said so.” Well here’s your chance to play the why game again.
  • Start with an idea and then ask yourself why that particular idea or event occurs. As you go along, write down your answers and then ask why again?
the why game example
The Why Game Example
  • Original idea: Students and their families have to pay unnecessary amounts of money that is financially damaging
  • Why?
  • Students must remain in college longer than necessary
  • Why?
  • There are not enough classes offered to meet the demand
  • Why?
  • There is not enough money in the budget and/or the money is spent unwisely
  • Why?
  • Well I don’t know why but it would benefit students and families if more money was put into the colleges to build new classrooms and hire more teachers
  • Thus, you play the way game until you can’t go any further so you can see how the events are related
steps for writing evaluation essay
Steps for Writing Evaluation Essay

Step # 1: To start with, choose an event or a phenomenon to analyze. Ask yourself, what happened, and then try to answer the question “Why did it happen?” Stated succinctly, trace the cause-and- effect relationships for yourself.

Step # 2:Sketch out main points of your essay in the introduction. Let readers understand in general what your paper is going to be about.

steps for writing evaluation essay1
Steps for Writing Evaluation Essay

Step # 3: List the causes and give their description, so that your reader can grasp the whole situation.

Step # 4: Choose the effects and show the connection between reasons and consequences. Your reader must understand how you have deduced one from another.

steps for writing evaluation essay2
Steps for Writing Evaluation Essay

Step # 5: Explain why your analysis is important and what its practical meaning is.

Step # 6: Make a conclusion.

topic selection
Topic Selection
  • Since almost any event has both its causes and consequences, there are a vast variety of possible topics for a cause and effect essay. Still, it would be reasonable to choose a topic that you are familiar with.
topic selection1
Topic Selection

These may be:

  • Negative effects of smoking
  • Factors that lead to depression
  • A correlation between economic crisis and unemployment
  • Economic consequences of the war on Middle East
  • Effects of global warming
the danger in cause and effect
The Danger in Cause and Effect
  • Although there are many cause and effect relationships out there, you must make sure they are supported by facts and with a dominant idea.
  • Sometimes advertisements and superstitions can be misleading when it comes to cause and effect relationships…

Some commercials attempt to convince their audience that in order to be a good and worthy person, you must have their product

  • So whether it’s a science lab or an essay, be sure your idea is supported by evidence!
key points to consider
Key Points to Consider
  • Mind that the same event may be a cause and an effect simultaneously.
    • For example, the collapse of the Soviet Union may be studied as a result of many domestic and foreign factors, but at the same time it can be considered a cause of restructuring of the Eurasian geopolitical space, the uprising of China and so on. Decide, in which direction you are going to move.
key points to consider1
Key Points to Consider
  • Concentrate on those effects that relate to the causes directly, and are close in time to them.
    • This will prevent you from having to delve into unneeded analysis of far-reaching consequences.
key points to consider2
Key Points to Consider
  • You might find it useful to sort effects by categories, so that you do not confuse anything.
    • For instance, if you describe the consequences of the Second World War, you can divide them into social, economic and political sections.
  • State clearly, what exactly you are going to examine – causes, effects, or both.
so how do i organize my idea
So how do I organize my idea?
  • There are several ways to pre-write a cause and effect essay but here is just one type of guideline to get you started
  • You can use the pre-write shown on the right for any type of cause and effect essay
  • Notice that the thesis is in the middle in order to remind you that even though you are connecting causes and effects, they must all tie into the dominant idea or thesis




List out your causes here and coincide them with the effects in the other column

List out the effects from the causes column

Write your thesis here in the middle

cause and effect pre write sample
Cause and effect pre-write sample





1. They think they’re unbeatable

2. They think it won’t happen to them

3. They think they are okay to drive

4. They are afraid of their parents finding out or breaking their curfew

5. They do it for attention from peers


Although communities are trying to eliminate drunk driving, more funding should be allocated toward educating teens about driving under any drug influence.

1. They learn the hard way that life is fragile

2. It sadly does eventually happen to them or someone they love

3. They are helpless and face severe consequences

4. Their parents find out anyway except with a citation or at a funeral

5. They receive the wrong kind of attention at a funeral

so what do i argue
So what do I argue?
  • You can argue three different ways when you’re setting up your thesis

1. You can argue that it’s important to understand both the causes and effects in order to make an informed choice on a stance or concept.

Example: It is important to analyze both the causes and effects of abortion before voting for pro-choice or pro-life.

2. You can argue that one event or reason is the main cause for a series of events.

Example: September 11, 2001 created a series of changes in America that will alter the way Americans live their day to day lives forever.

3. You can argue that one event or concept is the direct effect of a series of causes.

Example: Terrorism in the world is caused by a variety of events and resentments that cannot be undone or unraveled.

  • Do write down all causes and all effects that you can think of.
    • You don’t have to use all of them in your essay, but this will give you something to choose from.
  • Do try to place the causes in your essay chronologically.
    • If something happened simultaneously, try to figure out, which one was more significant.
  • Do keep in mind, what exactly you are trying to explain.
    • It is easy to forget about your goal while dealing with a number of causes and effects.
  • Do use transition words that will make your essay easier to comprehend.
  • Such words as:
    • “due to”
    • “thus”
    • “since”
    • “as a result”
    • “because”
    • “therefore”
  • and others will help you structure your paper.
don ts
  • Don’t try to cover all possible effects of the event, neither its short-term effects, nor those which relate to the distant future. Choose the most important ones.
don ts1
  • Don’t endeavor to describe something huge.
    • If the topic that you’ve chosen is too broad, try to narrow it.
don ts2
  • Don’t forget to follow the writing requirements.
    • Keep your essay scientific, avoid using slang.
    • Also check your paper for mistakes and for its compliance with established formatting standards.
common mistakes
Common Mistakes
  • Forgetting to show connections between causes and effects.
  • Covering a very broad topic and digging into a large number of causes, consequences and arguments.
common mistakes1
Common Mistakes
  • Losing links in a causal chain.
    • If you have a sequence of causes that flow logically one from another, then missing one or several of them will make your paper harder to understand.
  • Forgetting to use supporting details.
  • Forgetting the purpose of your paper.
    • For instance, one starting to write a persuasive paper may end up with an informative one.
what does a cause and effect paper look like
What does a cause and effect paper look like?
  • Attached is an example essay on the following topic:

What Makes Employers Reject a Job Candidate

introduction paragraph
Introduction Paragraph

Getting a new job is almost always stressful, and rejection of a job candidate is a rather common thing. It is strange, but many hirers prefer to explain the reasons for their rejection in vague terms, so a person almost never knows where they have made a mistake and where the main flaw was. So each time one has to guess what to pay attention to, what part the potential hirer thinks is crucial, and what to be prepared for.

1 supporting details
1. Supporting Details

So what are the main reasons of refusal? Inadequate salary expectations may be considered one of the first and foremost causes. If an employer evaluates one’s salary demands as excessive, he will probably reject their application and search for someone whose requirements will be more modest. On the other hand, lowered salary demands may mean that the candidate lacks qualification or self-esteem.

2 supporting details
2. Supporting Details
  • The second reason why the candidate can be rejected is unreliable information in a resume. For example, if a person specifies their proficiency in foreign languages as “fluent” but demonstrates much weaker knowledge during the interview, it is obvious that they’ll have little chance of being hired. As they say, there is no secret that will not be revealed.
  • Lack of motivation is also among the main reasons of refusal. Candidates, who have no idea about their own career plans and ambitions probably won’t be of a great interest for any company. So, one should better formulate their motivation for working in this particular company, as well as in general, to give an impression of a self-confident and purposeful person. Lack of motivation is also among the main reasons of refusal. Candidates, who have no idea about their own career plans and ambitions probably won’t be of a great interest for any company. So, one should better formulate their motivation for working in this particular company, as well as in general, to give an impression of a self-confident and purposeful person.
3 supporting details
3. Supporting Details

It may seem funny or strange, but sometimes high qualification may be the cause of rejection too. Hirers fear that employees, whose qualification is excessive for the position that he is applying to, will lose interest in the job quickly, and start to search for another one. Sometimes a high-qualified person just cannot find a position for a long period of time, thus agreeing to work in a position that they had outgrown a long time ago. One sees their new position as temporary, and looks for the job that will suit their abilities.

4 supporting details
4. Supporting Details

It would also be useful to make preparation for the interview itself, because potential employers will most likely evaluate candidate’s appearance, manner of speech, and behavior. A lack of preparation for the interview may be a serious flaw. One should pay attention to the questions about their previous job, and try not to make too harsh statements about the company that they were working at, about ex-colleagues or bosses, even if they’ve insulted them. The company needs to find a good professional, who would be easy to work with, and not a cranky misanthrope, even if he possesses high qualification, so a candidate should try to be pleasant.


Of course, there are lots of reasons for a rejection. Still, inadequate salary expectations, the lack of motivation, and unreliable information, presented in the resume, are among the main flaws that one may make while job-hunting. Besides, one may be rejected even because of excessive qualification or because of the lack of preparation for the interview. Thus, it would be useful to take these reasons into consideration when doing job-hunting.

any advise
Any advise?
  • Remember, it is not enough to state the obvious or make connections between events and concepts
  • In order to create an intriguing argument that is both informative and interesting, you must show the significance between the causes and effects.
  • In other words- show how it is important information or don’t bother at all.
  • What is Cause & Effect Essay?
  • The “Why” Game
  • What is Cause & Effect
  • Steps for writing Cause & Effect Essay
  • Topic Selection
  • How to Write a Cause & Effect Essay
  • Dos and Don'ts
  • Common Mistakes
  • Example