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Chris Densham High Power Targets Group Leader Technology Department STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. FNAL / STFC collaborations on neutrino target R&D. Collaborations on neutrino targets between Fermilab and STFC/RAL. LBNE & NuMI (LE) target studies & prototyping.

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fnal stfc collaborations on neutrino target r d
Chris Densham

High Power Targets Group Leader

Technology Department

STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

FNAL / STFC collaborations on neutrino target R&D
collaborations on neutrino targets between fermilab and stfc ral
Collaborations on neutrino targets between Fermilab and STFC/RAL

LBNE & NuMI (LE) target studies & prototyping

1st NOvA (ME) target for 700 kW beam

2nd NOvA target under manufacture

Mu2e target design, development & materials testing under way

Be window experiment proposal for HiRadMat

fnal stfc target credits collaborations
FNAL / STFC target credits / collaborations

UK/STFC/RAL Otto Caretta, Tristan Davenne, Chris Densham, Mike Fitton, Peter Loveridge, Matt Rooney, Joe O’Dell, Geoff Burton, Steve Jago, Dave Turner, Richard Day, Don Clark (DL), Roger Bennett, Ali Ahmad (Sheffield Uni)

Fermilab: LBNE/NuMI/NOvA: Patrick Hurh, James Hylen, Kris Anderson, Mike McGee, Cory Crowley, Bob Zwaska, Sam Childress, Vaia Papadimitriou

US Mu2e: Ron Ray,Rick Coleman, Patrick Hurh, Jim Popp, Vitaly Pronskikh, Larry Bartoszek, Steve Werkema, Kurt Krempetz, Anthony Leveling, Andy Stefanik, Kevin Lynch, Igor Rakhno, Adrienne Dee Hahn, George Ginther, Michael Campbell, Horst Friedsam, Michael Gardner, Nikolai Andreev, Jeff Brandt, Vladimir Nagaslaev

magnetic modelling

Magnetic modelling

Longitudinal force in inner conductor

Peter Loveridge


Combined effects of: 1 ms 300 kA current pulse + 2.3 MW 120 GeV beam pulseTarget diameter dominated by Lorentz forces->combined target/horn inner conductor not recommended

Beam effect

Horn current pulse effect

pressurised helium cooled concept 2 mw
Pressurised helium cooled concept (2 MW)

Mid-plane temperatures

Heat transfer coefficient

Otto Caretta & Tristan Davenne

lbne target study preliminary conclusions for 2 3 mw
LBNE target study: preliminary conclusions for 2.3 MW
  • Combined target/horn inner conductor
    • Not recommended as dimensions dominated by horn current pulse Lorentz forces rather than pion production
  • Candidate beryllium target technologies for further study:
    • Pressurised helium cooled separate spheres (recommended)
    • Water cooled longitudinally segmented (possible – a higher power version of the NuMI (LE) target)
numi le target studies re design prototyping
NuMI (LE) target studies, re-design & prototyping

How joint ended

Problems of stress waves in existing IHEP stainless steel water pipes causing NuMI target failures

How joint started out

Otto Caretta / Peter Loveridge /Tristan Davenne

Complex & delicate upstream region causing joint failures

  • Proposed solution: Titanium alloy pipe
  • lower ∆T
  • lower stiffness
  • higher strength
  • CTE similar to graphite
numi target re design prototyping
NuMI target re-design & prototyping
  • Good potential candidate for LBNE at 700 kW

Graphite to titanium braze prototype

Minimum & simple joints within target container

Single piece titanium tube bending

Mike Fitton/Joe O’Dell/Geoff Burton


NOVA (ME) targets

MET-01 Manufactured, delivered and installed

MET-03 Currently in assembly at RAL

Mike Fitton

nova tests and analysis
NOVA tests and analysis

Measurement of heat transfer in target fins using thermal imaging camera identified thermal issue with cooling of budal monitor fins. Redesign of bracket more than halves the operating temperature rise.



Simulation of natural convection and radiation inside target vessel. Used to estimate target fin operating temperatures and emissivity requirements of outer vessel.

Mike Fitton + Tristan Davenne

nova welding development
NOVA welding development

High quality welds (NAS 1514 Class II or better) in 6061 aluminium proved very difficult to produce consistently.

Some welds were completely removed by marching pipe stubs from solid

By visual inspection welds look very good. Radiography reveals significant porosity

Latest socket weldNo porosity visible on radiography

Parameters explored to optimise weld:

Cleaning (including etching)

Filler wire selection


AC current/balanceGas (Helium/Argon Blend)

Mike Fitton + Joe O’Dell

mu2e project
R. Ray - Director's CD-1 ReviewMu2e Project
  • Production Solenoid
    • Production target
    • Graded field
  • Detector Solenoid
    • Muon stopping target
    • Tracker
    • Calorimeter
    • Warm bore evacuated to 10-4 Torr
  • Delivers ~ 0.0016 stopped m- per incident proton
  • 1010 Hz of stopped muons

4.6 T

2.5 T

Cosmic Ray Veto not shown

2 T

  • Transport Solenoid
    • Collimation system selects muon charge and momentum range
    • Pbar window in middle of central collimator

Production Solenoid

1 T

Detector Solenoid

Proton Beam

Transport Solenoid

1 T

Production Target



phase 2 cd 1 study for 8 kw radiation cooled tungsten
Phase 2 (CD-1) study for 8 kW: Radiation Cooled Tungsten

Wire tensioning springs

Hub Interface

Tungsten Target

Tantalum wires

Titanium mounting ring

Bayonet pins

mu2e target lifetime evaluation
Mu2e target lifetime evaluation
  • The target will be subject to a stress cycle at elevated temperature
  • The target lifetime will be limited by:
  • Fatigue
  • Creep

Question: how to reproduce a similar time varying stress and temperature using a pulsed power supply instead of a beam?

Peter Loveridge

Mu2e Target Operating Conditions

proposed resistive heating test
Proposed resistive heating test
  • Resistive (Joule) heating from an electric current pulse to preferentially heat the centre of a disk
  • Peter Loveridge to cover in next session

Steady-State Von-Mises Stress Field

D.C. Current Distribution

Steady-State Temperature


Qrad ~ 200W

160A D.C - equivalent heating to 1.6kA 1msec pulses @20 Hz


Volumetric Joule heating (J2ρ) mostly occurs over this length

Peter Loveridge

ipasi collaboration between fermilab and pasi uk programs
‘iPASI’: Collaboration between Fermilab and PASI-UK programs
  • Tungsten test program for Mu2e is complementary to previous ‘little wire’ stress-wave fatigue program led by Roger Bennett
    • Contribution by PASI-UK in terms of both equipment and manpower
  • Induction heater system to heat tungsten for testing of Mu2e or ISIS targets
    • Contribution by PASI-UK
  • Be window tests at HiRadMat – extend existing collaboration with CERN