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How the French Blend Light Rail and Complete Streets for Total Accessibility Presented at Rail~Volution Minneapolis, 22 September 2014 Greg Thompson . Tom Larwin . Tom Parkinson Transportation Research Board Subcommittee on International Light Rail Development glthompson@fsu.edu

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Complete Streets: From Policy to Implementation


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complete streets from policy to implementation

How the French Blend Light Rail and Complete Streets for Total Accessibility

Presented at Rail~Volution Minneapolis, 22 September 2014

Greg Thompson . Tom Larwin . Tom Parkinson

Transportation Research Board Subcommittee on International Light Rail Development

glthompson@fsu.edu

larconsult@yahoo.com

tep@telus.net

Complete Streets: From Policy to Implementation

defining the french approach the macro view
Defining the French Approach: the Macro View
  • MACRO Design Principle 1: Develop a a concept of how public transport should tie the urban agglomeration together: a small number of light rail (nouveau tram) lines is key
  • MACRO Design Principle 2: High-performance and -capacity vehicles designed to blend with the urban fabric and facilitate accessibility between lines and modes
  • MACRO Design Principle 3: Fully accessible stops widely spaced
  • MACRO Design Principle 4: Stops adjacent to ,and integrated with major destinations; including in suburbs
  • MACRO Design Principle 5: Bus lines reconfigured around nouveau tram stations
the micro design side of the french approach the art of insertion
The Micro Design Side of the French Approach: the Art of Insertion
  • Almost 100% use of public rights-of-way
    • At the expense of the auto, which are kept off tracks
    • Examples: Roads, alleys, plazas, university campuses, hospital campuses
  • All rights-of-way rebuilt from building façade to building façade to facilitate transit performance, pedestrian and bicycle flow, safety, aesthetics
  • The Art of Insertion is a political process wherein stakeholder groups figure out how to design high performance transit that is compatible with their lifestyles
macro design principle 1 a regional core of light rail lines
MACRO Design Principle 1: A Regional Core of Light Rail Lines

University

Mall

Big box district

Industrial district

High rise offices

Malls and big box stores

University hospital complex

Intercity rail

Center City

Medical complex

slide7

Macro Design Principle 2: Long vehicles with lots of doors and a fare system that allows passengers to use all doors, bright, cheery, airy

slide26
Summary: Macro concepts of quality transit combined with The Art of Insertion result in complete streets that truly change travel behavior

Insertion of high quality transit into urban and suburban fabric: an art combining:

Transit planning and engineering

Traffic engineering

Safety analysis

Aesthetics and urban design

Politics

To achieve the results you have seen

thank you merci
Thank you — Merci!

Waiting for the tram, Strasbourg 2011

TP

27 of 14

base chart from the transport politic yonah freemark 2012

Growth of French Tramways—kilometres of route

Base chart from The Transport Politic, Yonah Freemark 2012

Prior French practice was rubber-tired metro for large cities: Paris, Lyon, Marseille. Rubber-tired light metro (Siemens VAL) for medium cities: Lille, Rennes, Toulouse. Then the lower cost tramway appeared.

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

Remarkable growth, particularly from 2000; there is no distinction between tramways (streetcars) and light rail in France, more a combination of features. Tram-trains are not covered here but are gaining ground with dual-system vehicles capable of over 100km/h— 750 volts plus 1.5V DC or 25kV AC or diesel

slide29

.

Some results

Buses and trams are closely integrated with free transfers. Ridership increase is typically 30–60%. Montpellier went from 28.8m/year on the all bus system in1999, to 62.2m in 2010 with 5 routes, an 150% increase.

slide30

Despite moderate fares and frequent service with union (syndicat) drivers, average farebox recovery at 48% is good, particularly given that on some systems heavily discounted students make up over half the riders. Alignments may often seem convoluted but ensure that universities, schools and other major generators—hospitals and railway stations—are well connected.

LRT Farebox Recovery as percent of Direct Operating costs

30 of 14

slide31

Bordeaux with APS

Capital Costs

Despite the economies of scale from city to city: joint orders for vehicles, use of public land and easements, and minimising line poles (25% of spans in Brest are attached to buildings), French tramways are comparable or slightly more expensive than other European systems—although allowance should be made for the 15-25% of project costs that are spent on the urban environment—and any APS.

The average of eleven recent French systems is US$ 29m/km, range $20.4– $51.2

The average of seven recent US systems is US$ 35m/km, range $28.6– $43.5

Excludes systems, such as Seattle, with tunnels or other high infrastructure costs; €=US$1.3