The Rise and Rule of Benito Mussolini. Topic 1. Benito Mussolini. Born in 1883 Son of a blacksmith Before WWI : professional revolutionary, left wing socialist, and radical journalist. Early Years. School master by 1901. Arrested in 1903 for stirring up controversy in Switzerland.
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Benito Mussolini Born in 1883 Son of a blacksmith Before WWI: professional revolutionary, left wing socialist, and radical journalist
Early Years School master by 1901. Arrested in 1903 for stirring up controversy in Switzerland. Inspired by the writing of Sorel and Nietzsche.
Corporal Mussolini • Abandoned Socialism in December 1914. • During the war he became an intense nationalist. • He demanded the conquest of Italia irredenta (Italian territory inside of Austrian borders)
Fasci Italiani di Combattimento • March 1919 • Fasci Italiani di Combattimento • What is fascism?
The March on Rome • The Blackshirts • The March on Rome • Mussolini becomes Prime Minister • The Totalitarian State • Il Duce
New laws • The Acerbo Law • Reasons for the law • The assassination of the socialist deputy GiacomoMatteotti
Taking Complete Control • Taking over ministries • The MVSN (Blackshirts) • OVRA (Organization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism) • The Christmas Eve Law (1925)
The Economy of Italy: 1922-1943 • Public Construction Programs • The “Battle for Wheat” • Mussolinia • The “Battle for Land” • “Gold for the Fatherland”
Manipulation • Propaganda • Replacing liberalism and democracy • The role of teachers and professors • “Free Press”
The role of education • “reorganizing the youth from a moral and physical point of view” • “fascist education is moral, physical, social, and military: it aims to create a complete harmoniously developed human, a fascist one according to our views”
The Italo-Abyssinian Crisis • Building an Italian Empire • Avenging past defeats • Battle of Adowa (March 1896) • “A Place in the Sun”
The Italo-Abyssinian Crisis • The new fort at Wal Wal • The Wal Wal Incident • Border Clashes • Response of The league of Nations (Great Britain and France)
The Italo-Abyssinian Crisis • Emperor Haile Selassie • The Abyssinian Army • Types of Equipment • The Imperial Guard
The Abyssinian Crisis • October 1935 • The Hoare-Laval Pact (December 1935) • The Christmas Offensive • Chemical Warfare • “the terrible rain that burned and killed”
Italy gains an Empire • Selassie flees Abyssinia • The New Emperor of Abyssinia • Mussolini’s moment of glory • Italy gains its empire • Selassie’s speech • “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.”
Mussolini • Effects of the Abyssinian Crisis • Collective Security? • The Rome-Berlin Axis • Whose to blame for the failure?