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Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

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  1. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Chapter 5

  2. Introduction • A powerful alternative to H.323 • More flexible, simpler • Easier to implement • Advanced features • Better suited to the support of intelligent user devices • A part of IETF multimedia data and control architecture • SDP, RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol), SAP (Session Announcement Protocol)

  3. The Popularity of SIP • Originally Developed in the MMUSIC • A separate SIP working group • RFC 3261 • Many developers • SIP + MGCP/MEGACO • The VoIP signaling in the future • “back-off” or SIPit (SIP Interoperability Tests) • Test products against each other • Organized by SIP Forum

  4. The 18th SIPit event in Tokyo, Japantook place April 17-21, 2006, and will be hosted byJPNIC • The 17th SIPit event in Stockholm, Sweden took place 2005-09-11 to 2005-09-16 and was hosted by Hotsip • The 16th SIPit event in Banff, Canada took place 2005-04-04 to 2005-04-08 and was hosted by Jasomi Networks • The 15th SIPit event in Taiwan took place 2004-08-23 to 2004-08-27 and was hosted by CCL/ITRI • The 14th SIPit event in Cannes, France took place 2004-02-08 to 2004-02-13 and was hosted by ETSI

  5. SIP Architecture • A signaling protocol • The setup, modification, and tear-down of multimedia sessions • SIP + SDP • Describe the session characteristics • Separate signaling and media streams

  6. SIP Network Entities • Clients • User agent clients • Application programs sending SIP requests • Servers • Responds to clients’ requests • Clients and servers may be in the same platform • Proxy • Acts as both clients and servers

  7. Four types of servers • Proxy servers • Handle requests or forward requests to other servers • Can be used for call forwarding

  8. Redirect servers • Map the destination address to zero or more new addresses • Do not initiate any SIP requests

  9. A user agent server • Accept SIP requests and contacts the user • The user responds → an SIP response • A SIP device • E.g., an SIP-enabled telephone • A registrar • Accepts SIP REGISTER requests • Indicating the user is at a particular address • Typically combined with a proxy or redirect server

  10. SIP Call Establishment • It is simple • A number of interim responses

  11. SIP Advantages • Attempt to keep the signaling as simple as possible • Offer a great deal of flexibility • Various pieces of information can be included within the messages • Including non-standard information • Enable the users to make intelligent decisions • The user has control of call handling • No need to subscribe call features

  12. Call Completion to Busy Subscriber service

  13. Overview of SIP Messaging Syntax • Text-based • Similar to HTTP • SIP messages • message = start-line *message-header CRLF [message-body] • start-line = request-line | status-line • Request-line specifies the type of request • The response line • The success or failure of a given request

  14. Message headers • Additional information of the request or response • E.g., • The originator and recipient • Retry-after header • Subject header • Message body • Describe the type of session • The media format • SDP, Session Description Protocol • Could include an ISDN User Part message • Examined only at the two ends

  15. SIP Requests • method SP request-URI SP SIP-version CRLF • request-URI • The address of the destination • Methods • INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, BYE, CANCLE, REGISTER • extensions: INFO, REFER, UPDATE, … • INVITE • Initiate a session • Information of the calling and called parties • The type of media • ~IAM (initial address message) of ISUP • ACK only the final response

  16. BYE • Terminate a session • Can be issued by either the calling or called party • Options • Query a server as to its capabilities • A particular type of media • The response if sent an INVITE • CANCEL • Terminate a pending request • E.g., an INVITE did not receive a final response

  17. REGISTER • Log in and register the address with a SIP server • “all SIP servers”– multicast address (224.0.1.75) • Can register with multiple servers • Can have several registrations with one server • INFO • RFC 2976 • Transfer information during an ongoing session • DTMF digits • account balance information • midcall signaling information generated in another network

  18. SIP Responses • SIP version SP status code SP reason-phrase CRLF • reason-phrase • A textual description of the outcome • Could be presented to the user • status code • A three-digit number • 1XX Informational • 2XX Success (only code 200 is defined) • 3XX Redirection • 4XX Request Failure • 5XX Server Failure • 6XX Global Failure • All responses, except for 1XX, are considered final • Should be ACKed

  19. “One number” service

  20. SIP Addressing • SIP URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) • user@host • E.g., • sip:collins@home.net • sip:3344556789@telco.net • Supplement the URL • sip:3344556789@telco.net;user=phone • sip:user:password@host:port;uri-parameters?headers

  21. Message Headers • Provide further information about the message • ~information elements • E.g., • To:header in an INVITE • The called party • From:header • The caling party • Four main categories • General, request, response, and entity headers • A list in Table 5-2 • Mapping in Table 5-3

  22. General Headers • Used in both requests and responses • Basic information • E.g., To:, From:, Call-ID:, … • Contact: • A URL for future communication • May be different from the From: header • Requests passed through proxies

  23. Request Headers • Apply only to SIP requests • Addition information about the request or the client • E.g., • Subject: • Priority:, urgency of the request • Authorization:, authentication of the request originator • Response Headers • Further information about the response • E.g., • Unsupported:, features • Retry-After

  24. Entity Header • Session information presented to the user • Session description, SDP • The RTP payload type, an address and port • Content-Length, the length of the message body • Content-Type, the media type of the message • Content-Encoding, for message compression • Content Disposition, • Content-Language, • Allow, used in a Request to indicate the set of methods supported • Expires, the date and time

  25. Example of SIP Message Sequences • Registration • Via: • Call-ID: • host-specific • Content-Length: • Zero, no msg body • Cseg: • Avoid ambiguity • Expires: • TTL • 0, unreg • Contact: • *

  26. A two-party call Subject: optional Content-Type: application/sdp Invitation

  27. Cseq: Has changed Termination of a Call

  28. An alternative address 302, Moved temporarily Another INVITE Same Call-ID Cseq ++ Redirect Servers

  29. Entity headers are omitted Changes the Req-URI Via: The path Loop detected, 482 For a response The 1st Via: header Checked removed Proxy Servers

  30. Proxy state • Can be either stateless or stateful • Record-Route: • The messages and responses may not pass through the same proxy • Use Contact: • A Proxy might require that it remains in the signaling path • In particular, for a stateful proxy • Insert its address into the Record-Route: header • The response includes the Record-Route: header • The Record-Route: header is used in the subsequent requests • The Route: header = the Record-Route: header in reverse order, excluding the first proxy • Each proxy remove the next from the Route: header

  31. “fork” requests A user is registered at several locations ;branch=xxx Forking Proxy

  32. The Session Description Protocol • The message body • SDP, RFC 2327 • The Structure of SDP • Session Level Info • Name • The originator • The time • Media Level Info • Media type • Port number • Transport protocol • Media format

  33. SDP session description structure

  34. SDP Syntax • A number of lines of text • In each line • field=value • Session-level fields first • Media-level fields • Begin with media description field (m=)

  35. Mandatory Fields • v=(protocol version) • o=(session origin or creator and session id) • s=(session name), a text string • t=(time of the session) • t=<start time> <stop time> • NTP time values in seconds • m=(media) • m=<media> <port> <transport> <fmt list> • Media type • The transport port • The transport protocol • The media format, an RTP payload format

  36. Optional Fileds • i=(session information) • A text description • At both session and media levels • u=(URI of description) • Where further session information can be obtained • Only at session level • e=(e-mail address) • Who is responsible for the session • Only at the session level • p=(phone number) • Only at the session level

  37. c=(connection information) • Connection type, network type, and connection address • At session or media level • b=(bandwidth information) • In kilobits per second • At session or media level • r=<repeat interval> <active duration> <list of offsets from start- time> • For regularly scheduled session • How often and how many times

  38. z=(timezone adjustments) • z=<adjustment time> <offset> <adjustment time> <offset> .... • For regularly scheduled session • Standard time and Daylight Savings Time • k=(encryption key) • k=<method>:<encryption key> • An encryption key or a mechanism to obtain it • At session or media level • a=(attributes) • Describe additional attributes

  39. Session Level Protocol version (v) Origin (o) Session name (s) Session information (i) URI (u) E-mail address (e) Phone number (p) Connection info (c) Bandwidth info (b) Time description (t) Repeat info (r) Time zone adjustments (z) Encryption key (k) Attributes (a) Media level Media description (m) Media info (i) Connection info (c) Optional if specified at the session level Bandwidth info (b) Encryption key (k) Attributes (a) Ordering of Fields

  40. Subfields • Field = <value of subfield1> <value of subfield2> <value of subfield3> … • Origin (o) • Username, the originator’s login id or “-” • session ID • A unique ID • Make use of NTP timestamp • version, a version number for this particular session • network type • A text string; IN refers to Internet • address type • IP4, IP6 • Address, a fully-qualified domain name or the IP address • o=mhandley 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 126.16.64.4

  41. Connection Data • The network and address at which media data are to be received • Network type, address type, connection address • c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127 • Media Information • Media type • Audio, video, application, data, or control • Port, 1024-65535 • Format • List the various types of media • RTP/AVP payload types • m= audio 45678 RTP/AVP 15 3 0 • G.728, GSM, G.711

  42. Attributes • Property attribute • a=sendonly • a=recvonly • value attribute • a=orient:landscape • rtpmap attribute • The use of dynamic payload type • a=rtpmap:<payload type> <encoding name>/<clock rate> [/<encoding parameters>]. • m=video 54678 RTP/AVP 98 • a=rtpmap 98 L16/16000/2

  43. Usage of SDP with SIP • SIP for the establishment of multimedia sessions • SDP – a structured language for describing the sessions • The entity header

  44. Fig 5-15 G.728 is selected If a mismatch 488 or 606 Not Acceptable A Warning header INVITE with multiple media streams Unsupported should also be returned With a port number of zero Negotiation of Media

  45. Offer/answer