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David Putnam, Jr., Ph.D. Associate Director, C & I Tigard Tualatin School District. Secondary literacy: Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring. Provide a rationale and framework for literacy intervention at the secondary level Examine the Maze and its relationship to OAKS

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David putnam jr ph d associate director c i tigard tualatin school district

David Putnam, Jr., Ph.D.

Associate Director, C & I

Tigard Tualatin School District

Secondary literacy:Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring


Objectives of the presentation

  • Provide a rationale and framework for literacy intervention at the secondary level

  • Examine the Maze and its relationship to OAKS

  • Detail the process for using Maze for Universal Screening, program evaluation, and identifying students in need of additional support

  • Describe progress monitoring effectiveness, and procedures for analyzing performance and instructional decision making

Objectives of the presentation


What s the problem
What’s the Problem? at the secondary level

  • Teaching reading is often considered an elementary school task despite…..

    • More than 8 million students in grades 4 – 12 are struggling readers (USDoE 2003).

    • 40% of HS students cannot read well enough to benefit from their textbooks (NAEP, 2005).

    • In Oregon in 2006-07, 33% of 8th graders and 35% of 10th graders (35%) did not meet OAKS reading.

    • The problem is more severe when we disaggregate data by racial and special program subgroups.


Secondary education for many students
Secondary Education for Many Students at the secondary level

  • High Expectations for Student Achievement--And Always Increasing

  • Students w Moderate to Severe Educational and/or Behavioral Needs--Big Prerequisite Skill Deficits

  • Students with a Long History of Failure--Poor Motivation and Lots of Escape Driven Behavior

  • General Education Teachers with Limited Support Skills and Instructional Materials

  • Students’ Programs Being Driven by Graduation Requirements Rather Than Instructional Needs

    Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. & Madi Phillips, Ph.D.NASP, 2007


Ttsd secondary literacy plan
TTSD secondary Literacy Plan: at the secondary level

  • Focus resources on teaching literacy strategies proven to increase achievement for all students across all content areas

  • Execute a comprehensive literacy intervention model to address students in need of strategic and intensive interventions

  • Use a Three Tier Model morphed to secondary schools


Effective secondary instruction a three tier model
Effective Secondary Instruction: at the secondary levelA Three Tier Model

  • All students, IN EVERY TIER, have access to embedded literacy strategies across content areas

    • Strategies:

      • Frayer Model

      • Anticipation Guide

      • Word Sorts

      • DR/TA or KWL

      • Group Summarizing

      • Definition Word Chart

      • Differentiated Assessment


Tier i what do all students receive
Tier I: What do all students receive? at the secondary level

  • Core Curriculum

  • Access to Content Literacy Strategies

  • A limited number of students are monitored by the Literacy Specialist

Target = 80% of student

population


Tier ii what do students receive in addition to the core
Tier II: What do students receive at the secondary levelin addition to the CORE?

  • Content Literacy Strategies Across the Content Areas

  • Strategic Intervention

    • Middle School: Soar to Success

    • High School: Literacy Strategies Classes

Target = >15%

Student Population


Tier iii what do students receive in addition to the core
Tier III: What do students receive at the secondary levelin addition to the CORE?

  • Content Literacy Strategies Across the Content Areas

  • Comprehensive reading and writing support

    • LANGUAGE! (High School)

    • LANGUAGE! (Middle School)


What is universal screening

What is Universal Screening?


Why universal screening determine program effectiveness

Why Universal Screening? Determine Program Effectiveness


Why universal screening program evaluation

Why Universal Screening? Program Evaluation


Why universal screening identify students in need of support

  • Periodic and universal screening ensures that no students “fall through the cracks”

  • Strategic support: Students are placed in a program that provides moderate intervention and progress monitored every 2 weeks

  • Intensive support: Students are placed in an intervention that is intense and progress monitored every 2 weeks

Why Universal Screening?Identify Students in Need of Support


What universal screeners are used with secondary students in ttsd

MAZE “fall through the cracks”

OAKS

Grades

Attendance

Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs)

What Universal Screeners Are Used with Secondary Students in TTSD?


What is maze

  • Multiple-choice cloze task “fall through the cracks”

    • Grade-level passage w/ every 7th word replaced by 3 word choices in parenthesis

    • Student reads silently and selects as many correct words as they can in 3 minutes

  • Curriculum-Based Measurement test that is “INDICATOR” of overall reading health

    • Combines fluency, comprehension, and all other subsumed reading skills

  • Can be administered to a group; scored later

  • Easy & quick to administer, multiple forms

What is Maze?


Example of maze passage
Example of Maze Passage “fall through the cracks”


Why maze

Allows for screening/assessing ALL students, ALL groups of Students, and School-wide literacy in time for intervention

Can use same test to monitor progress

Frequent progress monitoring increases academic achievement

Maze scores are a predictor of performance on OAKS AND NOW HS graduation

Why Maze?


Table of probable success mn
Table Students, and School-wide literacy of Probable Success (MN)

Critical values corresponding to likelihood of passing 8th grade Minnesota Basic Skills Test – Doug Marston, et al.


Maze oaks correlations in ttsd spring maze oaks best score
MAZE/OAKS Correlations in TTSD: Students, and School-wide literacy Spring Maze OAKS best score

  • All correlations moderate to high

  • Relatively consistent across passages

  • Median correlations “in the middle”


Maze and probability of success on oaks ttsd
maze and Probability of Success on Oaks (TTSD) Students, and School-wide literacy


Variability across passages
Variability Across Passages Students, and School-wide literacy


Maze screening in ms in ttsd

  • All students screened 3 times per year Students, and School-wide literacy

    • Three, 3 minute tests will be given each time

  • Screening assessment will occur in (Matrix/Trek/LA class)

  • Tests will be scored and data entered by (Classified Staff/Parent volunteers/Electronically)

  • Data will be used for program evaluation and to place students in support

  • Students in support will be monitored

Maze Screening in MS in TTSD


How do you analyze effectiveness of academic programs

Focused on MAZE, OAKS and Grades Students, and School-wide literacy

Queried ESIS for a demographic file with student name, ID #, ethnicity, program subgroup

Merged demographic file with data file for each measure

Created an Excel template organized by all subgroups

How Do You Analyze Effectiveness Of Academic Programs?


How do you analyze program effectiveness using oaks and maze

  • Core Data Analysis Students, and School-wide literacy

    • MAZE, OAKS, Grades blank template

    • MAZE, OAKS, Grades Data Example

How do you analyze program effectiveness using OAKS and Maze?


How to identify students in need of intervention

  • Initial Screening Students, and School-wide literacy :

    • Screening process initiated when academic skills fall at or below the 35% on OAKS, AND/OR

    • In Middle Schools: Bottom 20% of students on the MAZE-CBM/Maze Benchmark scores

    • Screen further with San Diego Quick, SRAI, and curriculum placement tests, when appropriate

How to Identify Students In Need Of Intervention?


How to identify students in need of intervention1

  • Post Screening Diagnostics and Placement: Students, and School-wide literacy

    • 6-Minute Solution--check for fluency & accuracy; then,

    • San Diego Quick to determine level of SRAI to use; then,

    • SRAI to gauge comprehension skills; then,

    • Language! placement tests are administered for students with the most significant reading needs

How to Identify Students In Need Of Intervention?


How do you identify the lowest 20 of students with maze data

Example Excel file Students, and School-wide literacy

Example of IPAS School Student list

How do you identify the lowest 20% of students with Maze data?


Progress monitoring

  • What is progress monitoring? Students, and School-wide literacy

  • What are the effects of progress monitoring?

  • How do you conduct progress monitoring at the secondary level?

  • How do you decide if the intervention is working?

Progress Monitoring


What is progress monitoring

  • An on-going, systematic approach to gathering academic and behavioral data to

    • evaluate response to intervention, thereby allowing data-based decision-making regarding instruction and learning outcomes on a frequent basis.

    • help schools establish more effective programs for children who have not benefited from previous programming.

  • In other words, it tells us if our interventions are working

What is Progress Monitoring?


Effects of progress monitoring

  • Progress monitoring has been extensively researched in Special Education (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986)

  • Students showed improved reading scores when teachers:

    • monitored their progress (+.70 effect size; ≈ 25th

      50th %ile. Like it!)

    • graphed their reading scores (+.80 effect size. Love it!)

    • used decisions rules to determine whether to make a change in instruction (+.90 effect size. Gotta have it!)

Effects of Progress Monitoring


Effects of progress monitoring1

  • CBM with decision rules (Fletcher, et.al., 2006) Special Education (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986)

    • “goal raising rule” for students responding well: effect size .52 (≈ 25th 40th %ile)

    • “change the program rule” for students not responding well: effect size .72 (≈ 25th 50th %ile)

    • Results in teachers planning more comprehensive reading programs

  • Additional support for effectiveness in General Education

    (Fuchs, et al., 1994)

Effects of Progress Monitoring


Progress monitoring in secondary schools

  • Select Special Education (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986) assessment tools

    • Maze

  • Determine how often to progress monitor

    • Every 2 weeks

  • Identify & Train staff to:

    • Administer & score  Reading Teacher

    • Input & Analyze data Instructional Coordinator

  • Use the data

    • Intervention planning at “20%” monthly meetings

    • Student feedback

Sanford & Putnam (2007)

progress monitoring in Secondary Schools


Meet monthly to consider

Continuing Special Education (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986) (Student is making progress, but, continues to need support)

Intensifying (Intervention is not working and should be revised), or

Referring for Special Education Evaluation (Intensive intervention is proving unsuccessful)

Exiting (Intervention no longer needed)

Meet Monthly to Consider…


Secondary literacy universal screening and progress monitoring

Intervention Change: Special Education (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986)

Language C

3-4 Data Points Below the Aimline!


Secondary literacy universal screening and progress monitoring

Intervention Change: Special Education (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986)

Language C

Now that’s WORKIN’!


Secondary literacy universal screening and progress monitoring

Intervention Change: Special Education (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986)

Language C

3-4 Data Points Below the Aimline! Consider SPED Referral


Exit from intervention when

Exit From Intervention When:


Intensify reading interventions when

Progress monitoring indicates 4 data points below the aimline (maze).

Slope is flat or decreasing AND scores are below 50th percentile (maze).

Grade+ scores at or below 3rd stanine.

Intensify reading interventions when:


Make a plan

  • Select Measures aimline (maze).

  • Decide

    • Who will assess students?

    • Who will record & graph the information?

    • Who will make instructional decisions?

  • Get Training

  • Establish

    • Decision rules

    • Team Process

    • Schedule for assessment

Make a Plan


References for maze

  • AIMSweb aimline (maze).

    www.aimsweb.org

  • Easy CBM

    http://easycbm.com/

  • National Center on Student Progress http://www.studentprogress.org/

  • Intervention Central www.interventioncentral.org

  • David Putnam, Jr., Ph.D.

    dputnam@ttsd.k12.or.us

References for Maze


Questions

Questions? aimline (maze).