invertebrates phylum annelida n.
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Invertebrates Phylum Annelida. Segmented Worms segmentation allows specialization of system Body Plan: Tube-within-a-tube Body Systems Digestion Pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestine, accessory glands Musculatory Longitudinal and circular muscles in each segment Circulatory

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invertebrates phylum annelida
Invertebrates Phylum Annelida
  • Segmented Worms
    • segmentation allows specialization of system
  • Body Plan: Tube-within-a-tube
  • Body Systems
    • Digestion
      • Pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestine, accessory glands
    • Musculatory
      • Longitudinal and circular muscles in each segment
    • Circulatory
      • Closed system with pumping hearts
    • Nervous system
      • brain, ventral nerve cord, and ganglia in each segment
    • Excretory system
      • nephridia in most segments
annelida cont d
  • Class Polychaeta
    • Largest class - marine worms
    • Have setae-bristles for anchoring worm or helping in locomotion
      • Arranged in bundles on parapodia
        • Swimming, gas exchange
    • Polychaetes are seasonal breeders
      • After fertilization, a trochophore larva develops-same larval type as molluscs
annelida cont d1
  • Class Polychaeta cont’d
    • Representative Organisms
      • Clam worms-Nereis
        • Predators-eat crustaceans and other small animals
      • Tube worms
        • Tentacles that form a funnel-shaped fan
        • Sessile filter feeders
annelida cont d2
  • Class Oligochaeta
    • Earthworms
    • Few setae per segment
    • No obvious head
    • Gas exchange across body wall
    • Feed on leaves and other organic matter
      • Food is drawn into mouth by muscular movements
      • Digestive tract has a large surface area
        • Typhlosole-expanded region on dorsal surface of intestine
annelida cont d3
  • Class Oligochaetacont’d
    • Segmentation
      • Structure
        • External - evident by body rings
        • Internal - septa
      • Nervous System
        • Ventral nerve cord has ganglionic swellings in each segment
          • Lateral nerves extend from ganglions
      • Excretory
        • Paired nephridia in each segment
          • 1st funnel-like collects coelomic fluid
          • 2nd exits through body wall
annelida cont d4
  • Class Oligochaeta cont’d
    • Segmentation cont’d
      • Circulation
        • Blood moves anteriorly through dorsal vessel
        • Enters aortic arches- “hearts”
        • Pump blood to ventral vessel
          • blood then moves posteriorly
        • Branches in each segment
annelida cont d5
  • Class Oligochaeta cont’d
    • Reproduction in earthworms
      • Hermaphroditic
        • Male organs- testes, seminal vesicles, sperm ducts
        • Female organs-ovaries, oviducts, seminal receptacles
      • Worms lie parallel in opposite directions
        • Clitellum produces mucus to keep sperm moist
          • After separation, produces a slime tube which moves eggs and sperm together for fertilization
          • Slime tube then produces a cocoon
annelida cont d6
  • Class Hirudinea
    • Leeches
    • Most live in freshwater
    • Most are ectoparasites- have suckers for feeding
      • Saliva contains hirudin-anticoagulant
    • Have same general body plan as other annelids
      • Lack setae
      • Each body ring has transverse grooves
        • Makes leech appear to have more segments
invertebrates phylum arthropoda
Invertebrates Phylum Arthropoda
  • Exoskeleton of chitin
    • Must undergo molting to allow growth
  • Exhibit jointed appendages
    • Walking, swimming, reproduction, eating, sensory reception
  • 3 body regions
    • Head, thorax, abdomen
  • Well-developed nervous system
    • Brain and ventral nerve cord
    • Sense organs-compound eyes, antennae
phylum arthropoda cont d
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Crustacea
    • Barnacles, shrimps, lobsters, crabs, crayfish
    • Terrestrial - sowbug
phylum arthropoda cont d1
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Crustaceacont’d
    • Crayfish: Representative external structure
      • Fused cephalothorax
        • Head has compound eyes and 5 pairs of appendages
          • First 2 pairs are antennae, 3 pair are mouth parts
        • Thorax has 5 pair of appendages-walking legs
          • 1st walking leg has a pinching claw
          • Gills are situated above the walking legs
      • Abdomen- has swimmerets
        • Last 2 segments have uropods and telson
phylum arthropoda cont d2
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Crustacea cont’d
    • Crayfish: Representative internal structure
      • Digestive system
        • 2 part stomach, green glands for waste excretion
      • Vascular system
        • heart pumps blood with hemocyanin into hemocoel
          • Hemocyanin has blue pigment
          • Hemolymph flows around organs
phylum arthropoda cont d3
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Crustaceacont’d
    • Crayfish: Representative internal structure cont’d
      • Nervous system
        • Brain and ventral nerve cord with segmental ganglia
        • Sensitive hair like receptors on antennae
          • Mechanoreceptors: responds to physical stimuli
          • Chemoreceptors: sensitive to chemicals in the water
      • Reproduction
        • Sexes separate- sperm transfer by first pair of swimmerets
        • Ovaries open at base of third walking legs
        • After fertilization, eggs attach to swimmerets of female
phylum arthropoda cont d4
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Uniramia
    • Insects; largest and most diverse group
    • General structure
      • Head with pair of compound eyes or several simple eyes, a pair of antennae, mouthparts adapted to specific way of life
      • Thorax: 3 pairs of legs and wings if present
      • Abdomen: contains internal organs
phylum arthropoda cont d5
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Uniramiacont’d
    • Representative Organism: Grasshopper
      • 3rd pair of legs is adapted for jumping
      • 2 pairs of wings
      • Tympanum on side of first segment of abdomen
      • Ovipositor of females- for digging a hole in which to lay eggs.
phylum arthropoda cont d6
Phylum Arthropoda cont’d.
  • Subphylum Uniramiacont’d
    • Grasshopper cont’d.
      • Internal organs
        • Digestive system-stomach, intestine, rectum, anus
        • Excretory system - Malpighian tubules
          • Uric acid-nitrogenous waste
        • Respiratory system-spiracles lead into trachae
          • Air pumped by contraction and relaxation of body wall
        • Circulatory system-heart pumps hemolymph into aorta, leads to a hemocoel
          • Hemolymph has no specialized pigment and is colorless
phylum arthropoda cont d7
Phylum Arthropoda cont’d.
  • Subphylum Uniramiacont’d
    • Grasshopper cont’d.
      • Reproduction
        • Adapted to terrestrial life
          • Internal fertilization protects zygotes and gametes from drying
          • Penis inserted into female, sperm stored in seminal receptacle
          • Fertilized eggs are deposited into ground
      • Metamorphosis
        • change in form and physiology that occurs as a larva becomes and adult
        • Immature grasshopper called nymph
phylum arthropoda cont d8
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Comparing Subphyla Uniramia and Crustacea
  • Grasshopper: terrestrial
    • Spiracles and trachae for gas exchange
      • O2 diffuses directly through to reach cells
    • Has tympanum for reception of sound
    • Use legs for hopping and wings for flying
    • Penis for passing sperm to female to prevent drying
  • Crayfish: aquatic
    • Crayfish gills for gas exchange
      • require oxygen-carrying pigment to carry oxygen to cells
    • Hair like receptors
    • Utilize uropods for swimming
    • Sperm passed to female, eggs carried externally.
phylum arthropoda cont d9
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Chelicerata
    • Arachnids: Spiders, ticks, scorpions, mites
    • Cephalothorax
      • 6 pairs of appendages
      • Chelicerae, pedipalps, and 4 pairs of walking legs
    • Abdomen contains internal organs
    • Ticks and mites are ectoparasites
phylum arthropoda cont d10
Phylum Arthropodacont’d.
  • Subphylum Cheliceratacont’d
    • Representative Organism: Spiders
      • Narrow waist separates cephalothorax from abdomen
      • Fangs deliver poison to prey
      • Pedipalps sense and hold prey
      • Digestion:
        • Digestive juices released into prey, initial digestion is external
        • digested “broth” then is sucked into stomach
      • Gas Exchange
        • lamellae of inner body wall for gas exchange
        • “book lungs”
      • Silk glands for web-spinning