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Nongame and Endangered Species. Chapter 19. Definition. Game vs nongame Not biological, but political Nongame = everything except game “Nongame” status doesn’t ensure protection Vermin or varmints taken anytime Nongame status not uniform Can vary geographically

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definition
Definition
  • Game vs nongame
    • Not biological, but political
    • Nongame = everything except game
      • “Nongame” status doesn’t ensure protection
        • Vermin or varmints taken anytime
    • Nongame status not uniform
      • Can vary geographically
          • Prairie chickens hunted in KS, protected in IL
          • Mourning doves the same
  • Consumptive vs nonconsumptive use
    • All “use” is consumptive to some degree
  • Emphasis should be on values
  • Not game or nongame, but just wildlife
brief history
Brief History
  • Historically game species
  • 1960’s environmental awakening
      • First Earth Day 22 April 1970
  • Now all species considered, but still a way to go
    • Ecosystem management
  • Indicator species
      • Stenotypic
  • Key ecosystems
brief history1
Brief History
  • Pelican Island (1903)
    • Teddy Roosevelt’s executive order
  • Migratory Bird Act (1916)
  • Endangered Species Preservation Act (1966)
  • DDT
    • Birds of prey
    • Robins
  • Rachael Carson
    • Silent Spring (1962)
brief history2
Brief History
  • Endangered Species Preservation Act (1966)
      • National Bison Range (1908)
      • Bald Eagle Protection Act (1940)
    • Authorized Sec. of Interior to determine if species were facing extinction
    • Sponsored research
    • Acquired habitat through Land and Water Conservation Fund (1965)
  • National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
slide7
ESA
  • Modified in 1969 to include all vertebrates and some invertebrates
  • Led to formation of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
    • Convention of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
cites
CITES
  • Appendices
    • I endangered
    • II threatened
    • III trade should be regulated for conservation
esa 1973
ESA 1973
  • Extended to cover plants
    • Only insect pests are excluded
  • Recognized species as members of ecosystems
  • Threatened
    • Likely to become endangered
  • Endangered
    • Faced with extinction in all or parts of their distribution
  • Recognized subspecies
    • FL panther
    • Ecologically Significant Units (ESU) salmon in West
slide10
ESA
  • Petition to list by any individual, agency, or group
  • Requires public notification in Federal Register
  • Criteria for listing
      • Habitat destruction
      • Over exploitation
      • Threatened eradication by predators or disease
      • Inadequate regulations for protection
esa section 7
ESA Section 7
  • Consultation Process
    • Requires federal agencies to consult w/ FWS or NMFS if they are proposing an “action” that might affect a listed species of its habitat
    • Action is broadly defined as funding, permits, etc.
  • Jeopardy decision
    • Must ensure action will not jeopardize continued existence of listed species of its habitat
  • Biological Assessment
    • Analyze potential effects of action
    • If adverse effect, then renders a biological opinion with “reasonable and prudent alternatives” to avoid jeopardy
slide12
ESA
  • Bush administration not friendly w/ ESA
    • Rate of listings
      • Clinton -- 65/yr, Bush -- 8/yr
    • Recovery plan completions
      • Less under Bush than Clinton
    • Bush administration proposed new regulations to weaken act
  • Obama administration more environmentally conscious
    • Over turned Bush rule
    • Salazar
slide13
ESA
  • Illegal
    • Trafficking
    • Take
      • Harming, wounding,killing, harassing
  • Recovery Plan
  • Define critical habitat
  • Habitat Conservation Plans (1982)
    • Allows some “incidental take”
    • Can issue incidental take permit
snail darter case
Snail Darter Case
  • Snail darter endangered 1975
    • Little Tennessee River
    • Telico dam under construction
  • 1978 Supreme Court upheld injunction stopping the dam
    • $100mm already been spent
  • Congress amended ESA
    • Creates Exemptions Committee
      • AKA God Squad
snail darter case1
Snail Darter Case
  • God Squad
    • Statutory power to exempt projects from ESA
    • Secretaries of Agriculture, Army (ACE), Interior, Chair Council Econ Advisors, EPA, NOAA, representative from the state where the project is located
  • Determined exemption was not warranted
  • Congress passed a law specifically exempting Tellico from federal regulations
  • God squad returns?
ben cone case
Ben Cone Case
  • Inherited Cone’s Folly
    • Pender County, NC
  • 1991 decided to sell trees
    • Hired biologist who found 12 RCW colonies
    • 1-mile circle around each couldn’t be harvested
    • 22% Cone’s property couldn’t be harvested
      • Still had to pay taxes
  • Changed timber management on remainder
    • Short rotations, large clearcuts
  • Informed neighbors, and they did the same
  • Pre HCP and Safe Harbor
      • Cones HCP
      • Adverse consequences?
      • Fix ESA?
safe harbor
Safe Harbor
  • Provides incentives for private landowners to manage for endangered species
  • Assures them that no additional restrictions will be imposed as a result of conservation practices
  • “No surprises”
  • ESA details
safe harbor process
Safe Harbor Process
  • RCW example
  • Establish baseline population -- 10 colonies
  • Do management that enhances habitat
    • Pop increases by 5, new pop is 15 colonies
    • Timber harvest can destroy up to 5 colonies
    • Must maintain baseline population
  • Safe Harbor by states
safe harbor economics
Safe Harbor Economics
  • Landowner A’s 5 “new” colonies can be “sold”
  • Landowner B wants to develop land with 2 RCW colonies
    • Couldn’t do so because it would violate ESA
  • Landowner B could “buy” 2 colonies from A, then A’s baseline would increase to 12
    • B could develop the land
  • Win-win for both landowners
canada
Canada
  • Species at Risk Act (2003)
triage
Triage
  • Field hospital in war or large emergency
  • Identify 3 groups
    • Likely to die regardless of treatment
    • Likely to survive regardless of treatment
    • Likely survive if given care
  • Thomas Lovejoy advocated applying triage approach to endangered species conservation
  • Caveat
      • “Care” might not be possible
      • Too much land required, genetic variability, “value”
economics
Economics
  • Lots of $$ spent feeding, observing traveling, etc. that’s not related to game species
who pays
Who pays?
  • License fees
  • Excise taxes
    • Pittman-Robertson, Dingle-Johnson
    • 1937, Federal Aide in Wildlife Restoration
    • 11% tax on hunting equipment
      • 50% habitat, 20% acquisition, 25% research
  • Tax check offs
    • Many states now have them for a variety of causes
  • License plates NC
  • Sales taxes - Missouri
funding for nongame
Funding for Nongame
  • Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1980)
    • Funding never appropriated
  • Teaming With Wildlife Coalition (1990’s)
    • Push to create funding for nongame
  • Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA)
    • Off shore oil leases
    • Didn’t pass Congress (2000-2001)
      • Passed the House
      • Never voted on in Senate
      • Funded one-time $$ 2000 and 2001
    • Failed again in 2002
funding for nongame1
Funding for Nongame
  • Teaming with Wildlife (1990’s)
  • State Wildlife Grants (SWG) (2000)
    • Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Plan
      • NC’s was the first in the country to be approved
    • Fiscal 2009 Bush administration’s request $73.8mm
        • About the same as 2008
    • Fiscal 2010 Obama administration $90 mm
vulture restaurants
Vulture Restaurants
  • Feeding bearded vultures in South Africa (1966)
    • USA CA condor
    • 1970’s cape griffon threatened in S. Africa
      • S. Africa vulture restaurant
      • More
    • India vulture dieoff
    • Diclofenac
    • Tower of silence
slide28

Bearded vulture

Cape griffon

Cape griffon vulture

vulture restaurants1
Vulture Restaurants
  • Reasons
    • Contaminants -- Diclofenic
    • More vulture declines
    • Ketoprofen
    • Source of safe and available food
      • Brush encroachment, restore populations
    • CA deficiency
      • Bones crushed by hyenas no longer available because hyenas eliminated
    • Tourism
    • Research
  • Located near feedlots
  • Fenced to keep out dogs, etc.
endangered species
Endangered Species
  • IUCN
  • Red Data Book (1966)
endangered species1
Endangered Species
  • Causes
    • Natural
      • Part of evolutionary process
      • Many more extinct than living now
    • Hunting
      • Passenger pigeon (??), Dodo
    • Exotic species
      • Predators
        • Cats in islands
      • Competitors
        • Goats and pigs in Hawaii, Cervids in NZ. Brown snake Guam
    • Habitat modification
predisposing factors
Predisposing Factors
  • Narrow habitat requirements (stenoky)
    • RCW, Black-footed ferret
  • Economic importance
    • Blue whale, bison, Atlantic salmon
  • Large size and threat to man
    • Grizzly bear, wolf, lions, etc.
  • Low reproductive potential
    • Gorilla, CA condor
  • Highly specialized
    • Manatee, panda
whooping crane
Whooping Crane
  • Nested in northern prairies and wintered along Gulf Coast
  • 23 birds remained in 1941 after establishing Aransas NWR in TX
    • 15 migrated north, 6 stayed, 2 captivity
    • Nesting grounds discovered in 1954
      • Wood Buffalo Nat Park, NW Territories, Canada
    • Resident population in TX gone by 1950
    • Migratory population varied 25-40
  • 73 breeding pairs in 2007
whooping crane1
Whooping Crane
  • Foster parent program began in 1975-1989 when whooping crane eggs were placed in Sandhill crane nests in Idaho
    • None ever nested, so failure
  • Meanwhile TX population grew to 176 in 2001
  • Raised juvenile cranes at Patuxent and International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI
  • Established a population of 50-100 in FL
    • No offspring in FL produced to date
whooping crane2
Whooping Crane
  • Ultralight aircraft used to establish new migratory route between WI and Kissimmee, FL
  • Nested successfully at Necedah NWR, WI
    • 2006 2 chicks hatched
  • 2007 53 eastern population
  • Video
kirtland s warbler
Kirtland’s Warbler
  • Nest in northern of MI
    • Young jack-pines -- fire dependent species
          • 15-20 years old
    • On the ground
  • Migrate to Bahamas
  • Declined to 176 pairs
    • Cowbird nest parasitism
      • Cowbirds spread east as forests were fragmented
  • Controlled cowbirds
    • 4,000/yr since 1972
    • Nest success increased, but population didn’t increase as much as would be expected, why?
kirtland s warbler1
Kirtland’s Warbler
  • Nesting habitat is dependent upon fire
  • Lake Mack burn (1980)
    • Created a lot of new habitat, and population increased
bog turtle
Bog Turtle
  • Small, rare
  • Disjunct population
    • Northern -- MD, NY
    • Southern -- NC
  • Habitat is small, shallow, spring-fed wetlands
    • Meadow vegetation of sedges, rushes, etc.
    • Soft mud and persistent shallow water
    • Rare plants there too
bog turtle1
Bog Turtle
  • Northern listed as threatened in 1997, but includes southern population too because individuals look the same
    • “Similarity of appearance” clause
  • Habitat loss, pet trade
    • Drained wetlands
  • Must keep in early successional condition
    • Light grazing
    • Manage water flow
      • Beavers pro or con
  • NC bog turtle project
  • NJ bog turtle project
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