Judicial Branch . Where did it come from?. Article Three “The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” There are two basic levels of courts in the United States:
*The most common federal crimes that are committed are bank robbery, tax evasion, mail fraud, kidnapping, and drug dealing
Equal Justice Under the Law:
Due Process of Law:
This means that all laws must be applied equally to all people. Due process of law is defined and guaranteed in the 5th and 14th Amendments.
The Adversary System:
Presumption of Innocence:
All defendants in court cases in the United States must be viewed as being innocent of the crimes that they are charged with until they are found guilty in court of the crimes. It is the responsibility of the prosecution to prove the defendant guilty. If the prosecution can not prove a defendant guilty beyond the shadow of a doubt, regardless of how much evidence they may have against the defendant, the defendant must be found innocent
United States Attorney:
United States Magistrate:
Issues federal arrest warrants, search warrants, and helps decide whether an arrested person should be held for a grand jury hearing. The US Magistrate is appointed by the President.
US Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit: This is a special court of appeals with national jurisdiction. This court is set up to hear appeals brought to it by the US Claims Court, the Court of International Trade, the US Patent Office, and several federal agencies.
United States Claims Court: This court has original jurisdiction over cases that deal with lawsuits against the Federal government. US Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit hears all appeals from this court.
US Bankruptcy Court: Each federal judicial district has a special court set up to hear and decide bankruptcy cases. One of the 12 US Circuit Court of Appeals hears appeals from this court.
Territorial Courts: These courts hear federal civil and criminal cases in the US Territories of The Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Marianas Islands, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico. One of the 12 US Circuit Court of Appeals hears appeals from this court.
Back row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, and Elena Kagan. Front row (left to right): Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief JusticeJohn G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg