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Sustinerea la nivel European a cercetarii romanesti in domeniul analizei vulnerabilitatii si protectiei apelor subterane. Cuprins:. - Aspecte teoretice. O scurta examinare a metodelor de determinarea vulnerabilitatii apelor subterane :

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Sustinerea la nivel European a cercetarii romanesti in domeniulanalizei vulnerabilitatii si protectiei apelor subterane


Cuprins: domeniul

- Aspecte teoretice

Oscurta examinare ametodelor de determinarea vulnerabilitatii apelor subterane :

- analiza comparativa intre harti de vulnerabilitate create prin diverse metode – studiu de caz: Néblon (Belgia)

- Tendinte pe plan European

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


Concepte pentru protectia apelor subterane : domeniul

  • Zone pentru protectia surselor de apa

  • Harti de Vulnerabilitate a apelor subterane

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


Conceptul de domeniulvulnerabilitate a apei subterane are diferite intelesuri pentru diversi experti …

  • Foster (1987)

  • Pettyjohn et al. (1991)

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1993)

  • U. S. Committee on Techniques for Assessing Groundwater Vulnerability - (National Research Council 1993)

  • Robins et al. (1994)

  • International Association of Hydrogeologists (Vrba and Zaporozec 1994)

  • European project COST Action 620 - Vulnerability and risk mapping for the protection of carbonate (karst) aquifers

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


domeniulVulnerabilitatea intrinseca defineste vulnerabilitatea apelor subterane la contaminantii generati de activitatile antropice. Se iau in calcul caracteristicile geologice, hidrologice si hidrogeologice ale zonei. Vulnerabilitatea intrinseca este independenta de natura contaminantului.”

„Vulnerabilitatea specifica defineste vulnerabilitatea apelor subterane la un anumit tip sau la anumite grupuri de contaminanti. Se iau in consideratie proprietatile acestor contaminanti si relatiile lor cu diverse componente ale vulnerabilitatii intrinseci.”

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


Caracteristicile evaluarii domeniul vulnerabilitatiiapelor subterane :

  • Vulnerabilitatea apelor subterane este o caracteristica relativa, nemasurabila si fara dimensiune.

  • Determinarea vulnerabilitatii apelor subterane trebuie facuta pentru fiecare caz in parte.

  • Majoritatea metodelor de evaluare a vulnerabilitatii apelor subterane sunt bazate pe tehnici Overlay and index (GIS)

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


OVERLAY AND INDEX METHODS domeniul

  • comparison of a subject area to criteria judged to represent conditions found to be vulnerable in other areas

  • large areas

  • use overlay and cartographic methods

  • Hydrogeological Complex

  • and Settings Methods (HCS)

  • Matrix Systems (MS)

  • Rating Systems (RS)

  • Point Count System Models (PCSM)

  • (Parameter Weighting and Rating Methods)

  • Parametric System Methods

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER INTRINSIC VULNERABILITY

  • HCS (hydrogeological complex and settings methods)

  • References: Albinet & Margat (1970 )  B.R.G.M. (1976) / Vrana (1968) / Olmer & Rezac (1974) /

  • Josopait & Schverdtfeger (1979) / Vrana (1984) / Subirana Asturias & Casas Ponsanti

  • (1984) / Breeuwsma et al. (1986) / Ostry et al. (1987) / Civita et al. (1988)

  • MS (matrix system methods)

  • References: Haertle (1983) / Engelen (1985) / Ministry Flemish Comm. (1987) / Carter et al. (1987) /

  • Palmer (1988) / Hungarian system – Madl Szonyi and Fule (1998) Irish method – Daly

  • and Drew (1999)

  • RS (rating system)

  • References: Fenge (1976) / Villumsen et al (1983) / Zaporozec (1985) / Sotornicova & Vrba (1987)

  • / Marcolongo & Pretto (1987) /GOD- Foster (1987)/ Schmidt (1987) / SEEPAGE -

  • Moore J.S. (1988) / AVI - Van Stempvoort et al (1993) / REKS – Malik and Svasta (1998)

  • PCSM (point count system model - rating and weighting system)

  • References: Trojan & Perry (1988) / DRASTIC-Aller et al. (1987) / SINTACS - Civita (1994) /

  • ISIS- De Regibus (1994)/ EPIK– (Doerfliger and Zwahlen 1997)/

  • German method– von Hoyer and Söfner (1998) / VULK – Jeannin (2001) / PI - Goldscheider (2002) /

  • and ... European Approach - Daly et al. (2002).

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


Groundwater VULNERABILITY

divide

Evaporation

Water table

FLOW LINE

REGIONAL FLOW SYSTEM

METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER INTRINSIC VULNERABILITY

BASIC PARAMETERS

  • Precipitation

Regional

recharge

area

  • Topographic surface

  • Soil characteristics

Local

recharge

area

  • Net Recharge

Regional

discharge

area

Infiltration

  • Unsaturated zone (lithology and thickness)

  • Aquifer media, hydraulic conductivity, and thickness

  • Aquifer connection to surface water

  • Land use type etc. ....

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


N E T H E R L A N D S VULNERABILITY

B E L G I U M

BRUSSELS

G E R M A N Y

LIEGE

M e u s e

NAMUR

F R A N C E

L U X E M B U R G

N E B L O N

N

0 50 100 km

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


2. VULNERABILITY

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


LEGEND: VULNERABILITY

Syncline axe

Anticline axe

Wells and Piezometers

Piezometric head contour lines for the carbonate aquifer (1998)

Geological strata:

Alluvial deposits

Tertiary formations

Namurian - H1b

Namurian - H1a

Visean (Vise unit) - V2a, V2b, V2c

Visean (Dinant unit) - V1

Upper Tournaisian - T2

Lower Touraisian - T1

Strunian - Fa2d

Upper Famennian - Fa2a, Fa2b, Fa2c

Lower Famennian - F1a, F1b, F1c

Water supply galleries

Perennial streams

Temporary streams

Swallowhole water catchment area

Geology and hydrogeology of the study area

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


Spring VULNERABILITY

Swallowhole

High level

Swallowhole

Néblon

Strong fractured zone

Low level

Ocquier stream

± 35 m

N

S

1 km

A

A’

LEGEND:

ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS UPPER TOURNAISIAN MAJOR FOLD AXIS

TERTIARY SANDY-CLAY DEPOSITS LOWER TOURNAISIAN GROUNDWATER LEVEL

NAMURIAN STRUNIAN

VISEAN UPPER FAMENIAN

LOWER FAMENIAN

Schematic North-South geological and hydrogeological cross-section

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


river network VULNERABILITY

Topographic

map

Karstic features

map

(if any)

Geological

map

Map of soil

HYDROGEOLOGICAL STUDIES

field

identification of unsignalised

karstic features, rock outcrops,

rock quarries obervation

river

flow-rates

values (gauging stations)

GEOPHYSICS

……….

GROUND-WATER BALANCE

……….

MODELS OF FLOW & CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT

……….

(if any)

TRACER TESTS

……….

PUMPING TESTS

……….

PIEZOMETRIC HEAD DATA

……….

LAND USE

(RUNOFF COEFF.)

TOPOGRAPHIC DEM - (GRID)

Mapping rock overcrops, quarries and hand-auger holes data

HYDROGEOLOGICAL MAP (if any)

SLOPE COMPUTING

ANALYSIS & MAPPING

Equivalence between different soils classification systems

MAP OF HYDRAULIC HEADS CONTOURS

DEM – HYDRAULIC HEAD (GRID)

SUBSTRACTION

AQUIFER MEDIA

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

SLOPE MAP

UNSATURATED ZONE LITHOLOGY / EPIKARST

RECHARGE

DEPTH TO GROUNDWATER

(GRID)

VULNERABILITY METHOD PARAMETER QUANTIFICATION

PARAMETER ANALYSIS, COMPUTING, OVERLAY, RECLASSIFICATION & MAPPING, FOLLOWING EACH METHOD SPECIFICITY

……………… n

PARAMETER MAP

PARAMETER MAP

PARAMETER MAP

OVERLAY PROCEDURE (PARTICULAR TO EACH METHOD)

VULNERABILITY INDEX MAP

RECLASSIFICATION OF VULNERABILITY INDEX TO OBTAIN THE FINAL VULNERABILITYMAP

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


Land-use VULNERABILITY

zoning

Topographic

map

Epikarst-

features map

Geological

map

Soils

map

Surface-runoff coeff.&

Vegetation-cover type

Digital terrain

model

Geomorphological

zoning

Aquifer-lithology

zoning

Control &

processing

Slope

zoning

Field tests, control &

processing

Field tests, control &

processing

Field tests, control &

processing

OVERLAY PROCEDURE

WEIGHTING OVERLAY PROCEDURE

Vi= (  · Ei ) + (  · Pi ) + (  · Ii ) + (  · Ki )

 = 3;  = 1;  = 3;  = 2.

Vulnerability index map (Vi )

Control, analysis & interpretation

RECLASSIFICATION

9  Vi 19- High / 20  Vi 25- Moderate / 26  Vi 34- Low

FINAL VULNERABILITY MAP

  • EPIK Method (Doerfliger and Zwahlen 1997)

Infiltration-conditions-

rate zoning (I)

Epikarst-rate

zoning (E)

Karst-network

zoning (K)

Protective-cover-

rate zoning (P)

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


LEGEND: VULNERABILITY

Degree of vulnerability

High vulnerability

Moderate vulnerability

Low vulnerability

Water supply galleries

Perennial streams

Temporary streams

Swallowhole water catchment area

Final vulnerability map using EPIK method

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

M

e

t

e

r

s

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


Pesticide DRASTIC VULNERABILITY

DRASTIC

Rating

1, 2, 3, ..., 10

Weight

DRASTIC Method(Aller et al., 1987)

» Depthto water

» Net Recharge

» Aquifer media

» Soilmedia

» Topography

» Impact of the vadose zone

» HydraulicConductivity

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 5

1 3

5 4

4 2

Di = Σ7j=1(Rj xWj )

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


LEGEND: VULNERABILITY

Degree of vulnerability

Very high vulnerability

High vulnerability

Moderate vulnerability

Low vulnerability

Very low vulnerability

Water supply galleries

Perennial streams

Temporary streams

Swallowhole water catchment area

Final vulnerability map using DRASTIC method - commonly used classes of vulnerability

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


LEGEND: VULNERABILITY

Degree of vulnerability

Very high vulnerability

High vulnerability

Moderate vulnerability

Low vulnerability

Water supply galleries

Perennial streams

Temporary streams

Swallowhole water catchment area

Final vulnerability map using DRASTIC method - (classes of vulnerability defined by Kumar and Engel 1997)

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


unconfined VULNERABILITY

semi-

unconfined

(covered)

STEP I

GROUNDWATER

OCCURRENCE

RATING

semi-

confined

none

overflowing

confined

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0

alluvial and

residual alluvial silts aeolian fluvio-glacial colluvial

soils loess sands sands + gravels gravels

UNCONSOLIDATED

(sediments)

STEP II

OVERLYING

LITHOLOGY

RATING

chalky

mudstones siltstones sandstones limestones

shales volcanic tuffs calcarenites

CONSOLIDATES

(porous rocks)

F

igneous/metamorphic recent calcretes +

formations+older volcanics other

volcanics levels limestones

CONSOLIDATES

(dense rocks)

FF

X 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

LEGEND:

(i) - Degree of Consolidation

STEP III

DEPTH TO

WATER

RATING

(unconfined or confined)

(ii) - Lithological character

<2m

5-10m

>100m

50-100m

20-50m

10-20m

2-5m

F - degree of fissuring

A - relative attenuation capacity

X 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

AA

A

Final Vulnerability Index

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

NEGLLOW MODERATE HIGH EXTREME

AQUIFER VULNERABILITY CLASSES

GOD Method(Foster et al., 1987)

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


LEGEND: VULNERABILITY

Degree of vulnerability

Very high vulnerability

High vulnerability

Moderate vulnerability

Low vulnerability

Very low vulnerability

Water supply galleries

Perennial streams

Temporary streams

Swallowhole water catchment area

Final vulnerability map using GOD method

AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

Radu Constantin GOGU


  • ISIS VULNERABILITYMethod (Civita and De Regibus 1995)

  • developed on the base of the rating and weighting of DRASTIC and SINTACS and for the general structure - GOD method

    • Parameters :

    pInf - the rating values for ranges on the net recharge

    fInf- infiltration  coefficient dependent on land use

    • net recharge

    pSu-the rating values for the soil media

    fSu- weighting coefficient dependent on soil thickness

    fSus- soil coefficient dependent on land use

    • soil type and thickness and

    • topography (correction factor)

    pIns- the rating values assigned to the vadose zone

    fSi- weighting coefficient dependent on the unsaturated zone

    lithology and thickness

    fIns- vadose zone coefficient dependent on land use

    • unsaturated zone

    • lithology and thickness

    pSat- the rating values assigned to aquifer media

    fSs - weighting coefficient dependent on the aquifer thickness

    fSat- aquifer coefficient dependent on land use

    • aquifer media and thickness

    Iv = pInf · fInf + pSu · fSus · fSu + pIns · fSi · fIns + pSat· fSs · fSat

    The vulnerability index Ivis divided in 6 vulnerability classes: Extreme, Very High, High, Medium, Low, Very Low

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    LEGEND: VULNERABILITY

    Degree of vulnerability

    Extreme vulnerability

    Very high vulnerability

    High vulnerability

    Moderate vulnerability

    Low vulnerability

    Very low vulnerability

    Water supply galleries

    Perennial streams

    Temporary streams

    Swallowhole water catchment area

    Final vulnerability map using ISIS method

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    • soil (S) VULNERABILITY - “effective field capacity” ( pedological mapping handbook)

    • percolation rate (W)

    • rock cover below soil (T):

      • thickness

      • rock cover above the aquifer (Ru and Rs):

    • the presence of a perched aquifer (Q)

    • the existence of unconfined/confined conditions (HP)

    Ru the lithology of the unconsolidated rocks

    Rs the lithology of the consolidated rocks

    • The German Method (von Hoyer and Söfner 1998)

  • applied for determination of the “protective effectiveness” (inverse of vulnerability)

    • Parameters :

    • P1 = S ·W

    • P2 = W( R1 ·T1 + R2 ·T2 + …… + Rn ·Tn ) + Q +HP

    • Pt= P1 + P2

    Based on the Ptindex, five classes of protective effectiveness are distinguished :

    very high, high,moderate,low,and very low.

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    LEGEND: VULNERABILITY

    Degree of vulnerability

    Very high vulnerability

    High vulnerability

    Moderate vulnerability

    Low vulnerability

    Very low vulnerability

    Water supply galleries

    Perennial streams

    Temporary streams

    Swallowhole water catchment area

    Final vulnerability map using The German method

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    100% VULNERABILITY

    6.25

    7.80

    9.86

    21.78

    7.56

    Vulnerability areas (%)

    20.49

    80%

    29.11

    60%

    84.57

    91.52

    73.04

    82.57

    40%

    73.26

    63.09

    20%

    14.83

    8.47

    5.17

    0.59

    0%

    EPIK

    DRASTIC

    GERMAN

    ISIS

    GOD

    DRASTIC (b)

    Vulnerability methods

    Low vulnerability

    Moderate vulnerability

    High vulnerability

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    Comments VULNERABILITY:

    • German method, GOD, ISIS - more than a half of the study zone is vulnerable !

    • DRASTIC method - 73.04% of the study area is moderate vulnerable.

    • EPIK method - 91.52% of the study area is moderate vulnerable.

    • Namurian formations - low vulnerable for all of the five methods.

    • Fammenian sandstone appears less vulnerable than the limestone aquifer.

    • Exception: GOD and partially German method

    • The Strunian bands - moderate or low vulnerable for all the methods.

    • The Lower Tournaisisan is mostly assessed with a moderate or a high

    • vulnerability.

    • The tertiary sandy-clay deposits are assessed as low vulnerable.

    • Exception: GOD and ISIS

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    • DRASTIC VULNERABILITYmethod is able to provide contrasted results a high sensitivity

      • Obs . - A careful quantification of the DRASTIC parameters, reliable results can be obtained for

      • karstic aquifers.

  • - The karstic features must receive a particular attention.

  • - Improvements have to be considered ( parameters quantification i.e. recharge)

    • The German method and the GODmethod assessed the karstic aquifer as very vulnerable.

      • The German method - good at delineating the karstic features but creates overpredicted high-

      • vulnerable areas.

    • EPIK method better outlined the karstic features and 91.52% - moderate vulnerable.

      • The EPIK method criteria make its only suitable for highly karstified regions or for water

    • catchment areas of the karstic features

    Analysing only aquifers that are lithologically very similar lead to less contrasts.

    This is the case for the EPIK method that can provide answers only for karstic aquifers.

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    Tendinte actuale pe plan european VULNERABILITY

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    Proiectul European COST A 620 VULNERABILITY

    “Cartografierea vulnerabilitatii si a riscului in scopul protectiei acviferelor carstice” (http://www1.unine.ch/chyn/php/publica_intro.php).

    Actiunea europeana A 620 a reunit experti din domenii stiintifice variate: hidrogeologie, geomorfologie, chimia mediului, microbiologie, avand fiecare dintre ei cunostinte specializate privind apele subterane. Acesti specialisti si-auadus contributia prin expertiza lor asupra analizei comportamentului specific al acviferelor carstice ca un intreg si precum si prin studierea sensibilitatii acestora la impactul antropic.

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006 VULNERABILITY

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    GABARDINE - VULNERABILITYGroundwater Artificial recharge Based on Alternative sources of wateR: aDvanced INtegrated technologies and management - FP6 (www.ewre.com/Gabardine/home.aspx)

    Vulnerability assessment to quantity and quality stress factors

    1) the development of an existing physically-based groundwater

    vulnerability assessment method to account for quantity and quality stress factors affecting the groundwater reservoir due to the artificial injection and or the abstraction of waters of variable qualities;

    2) application of the vulnerability assessment method to the testsites.

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006 VULNERABILITY

    Radu Constantin GOGU


    Va multumesc pentru atentie ! VULNERABILITY

    AQUAPROTECT – 16 Octombrie 2006

    Radu Constantin GOGU


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