Election of 1800: What Happened John Adams Vs. Thomas Jefferson Federalist Republican Harsh campaigns Hamilton: Accused of being a tyrant conspiring to become king. Jefferson: Dangerous radical. Accused of sleeping with a slave woman on his plantation.
Republicans dominate, but there is a catch…. Aaron Burr and Jefferson ran for the Republican ticket. -Republicans took a huge majority in the votes, and it looked like Jefferson had won. Constitution states, “ must vote by ballot for two persons” Votes came out tied at 73 for Jefferson and Burr
*House of Representatives Decide* Federalist Congress- Alexander Hamilton- Choose the lesser of two evils. - House chooses Thomas Jefferson.
Judiciary Act of 1801 Passed by the lame duck Congress *Federalists reduced the number of Supreme Court justices by one and increased the number of federal judges. *Adams appointed Federalists to these positions. Known as “midnight appointments”
Jefferson’s Vision as President • To return to the original spirit of the revolution. • Restore the republican experiment. • Check the growth of the republican experiment. • Halt the decay of virtue.
Republicans Control Executive and Legislative Branches Jefferson wanted to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801 Marbury v. Madison (1803) John Marshall -Rules that Marbury did have the right to sue based off of the Judiciary Act of 1789 - However, Marshall stated that the Act was Unconstitutional!!! ***Established Judicial Review*** (Unconstitutional or Constitution?)
Jefferson’s view on education *Restore the the countries virtue and enlighten the citizens.* Problem: “Crusade against ignorance” Solution: Universal Education *All males should receive free education* Doesn’t happen!!!
Jeffersonian Writing and Culture Noah Webster- American Spelling Book 1783 “blue backed speller” *Illustrated a desire for “American” culture Washington Irving- Famous satirical histories
Jeffersonian Religion Jefferson was a deist (God created the earth but then became removed from direct contact) *Organized church had decline*
Second Great Awakening *Increased the growth of different sects of Christianity.
Industrializing America • Jefferson did not believe in an industrialized America.But it does! • Major advancement (Cotton Gin) • Steam boat • Growing cities and urban life.
Eli Whitney • Hard to separate seed from cotton fiber. • Especially short-staple cotton. • Whitney invents a machine to do the work called a cotton gin. • *Revitalizes slavery*
Jefferson and Congress’s first action • Repeal the excise taxes on whiskey!
Jefferson also… • Maintains the national bank and debt-repayment plan of Alexander Hamilton’s.
Jefferson also… Foreign Affairs Maintained neutrality policies in foreign affairs
Jefferson also… Stays true to Republican ideals • Reduced military size • Eliminated many Federal jobs • Lowered the national debt.
Relationship of France and America • Napoleon Bonaparte secretly forced Spain to give them the Louisiana Territory. • Spain stopped allowing Americans to use the New Orleans port. • Jefferson faced a dilemma…
Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson wanted make an offer of $10 million to purchase New Orleans & a strip of land next to Florida from France. • Napoleon offers the whole Louisiana territory for $15 million. • American ministers quickly accept.
Constitutional to purchase the lands? • No clause in the Constitution directly addressed the President’s power to purchase foreign land. • Consequences of the Louisiana Purchase: Doubled the size of the US. Made Jefferson very popular.
Lewis & Clark Expedition • Jefferson wanted scientific exploration. • St. Louis- Oregon • Sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on an expedition. • Benefits: -Increased geographic and scientific knowledge. -Claims to Oregon territory. -Improved relations with Native American tribes. -Developed maps and routes for fur trades and future settlers.
Aaron Burr Conspiracy • Burr ran for governor of New York. • Part of a Federalist plot for secession. • Hamilton accuses Burr of treason. • Burr loses the election.
Burr flees. • Burr kills Hamilton in the duel • Flees to New York to avoid murder charges. • Another conspiracy plot by Burr. • Jefferson captures his men and puts them on trial for treason. • Chief Justice Marshall acquits Burr.
Napoleonic Wars • France and Britain were seizing ships of neutral nations. • Britain was considered “worse” because of impressment. • Chesapeake-Leopard affair- 1807 -British warship Leopard fired on U.S warship Chesapeake. -Killed 3 Americans.
Jefferson’s response Jefferson established the Embargo Act of 1807 -Kept American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port. Attempted coercion *Crushed the U.S economy! -Underestimated Britain’s ability to look elsewhere for trade. • Jefferson repeals the act in 1809.
Madison Becomes the 4th President Nonintercourse Act of 1809 • Could trade with all nations except Britain. Macon’s Bill No.2 (1810) Nathaniel Macon -Restored trade with Britain & France -Offered that if either side would respect their neutrality, they would cut off trade with the other. *Napoleon deceives Madison and Madison places an embargo on Britain. France continues to seize American ships.
War of 1812 • War Hawks- Republicans John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay were eager for war. • Convince Congress and Madison to go to war with Britain. *Southern and Western states in favor of the war.* Madison is reelected in election of 1812.