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How Plastics are Made Understanding the Physical Properties of Plastics. Prepared by the IAPD Education Committee (Module 1) Presented courtesy of Modern Plastics, Inc. Processing. Hand (or spray) lay up Laminating Filament winding Polymer orientation. Injection molding

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how plastics are made understanding the physical properties of plastics
How Plastics are Made

Understanding the Physical

Properties of Plastics

Prepared by the IAPD Education Committee (Module 1)

Presented courtesy of Modern Plastics, Inc.

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

processing
Processing
  • Hand (or spray) lay up
  • Laminating
  • Filament winding
  • Polymer orientation
  • Injection molding
  • Extrusion
    • Ram extrusion
    • Screw extrusion
    • Coextrusion
  • Casting
  • Compression molding
  • Rotational molding
  • Transfer molding
  • Calendering

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

injection molding
Injection Molding

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

extrusion
Extrusion
  • Ram
  • Screw
  • Coextrusion

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

casting
Casting

Base Material

Reactive Additive

Oven

Casting

Mold

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

compression molding

Mold Lid

Mold Resin

Compression Molding
  • Sheet and block molding
  • Parts molding

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

rotational molding
Rotational Molding
  • Low cost
  • Low pressure
  • Used in many markets
  • Easily adapted for short production runs

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

transfer molding
Transfer Molding

Widely used in the semiconductor industry

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

calendering
Calendering

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

hand or spray lay up
Hand (or Spray) Lay Up
  • Used to make large parts
  • Used to produce fiberglass boats and camper shells

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

laminating
Laminating

Resin Binder

Reinforcing Substrate

Heat and pressure applied to the top and bottom of the material

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

filament winding
Filament Winding
  • Used to make containers and tubes
  • Items used for transportation of liquids or gasses

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

polymer orientation
Polymer Orientation

Used to manufacture polymer fibers, strapping, webbing, film, sheet and profiles

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

plastics fabrication
Plastics Fabrication
  • CNC machining centers
  • CNC lathes
  • Cutting and drilling
  • Profiling
  • Routing and milling
  • Thermoforming
  • Forging
  • Milling
  • Welding
  • Bending
  • Bonding

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

thermoforming
Thermoforming
  • Single station thermoforming
  • Rotary station thermoformers
  • Pressure forming
  • Twin sheet thermoforming

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

welding
Welding
  • Extrusion welding
  • Hot gas welding
  • Butt welding
  • Spin welding
  • Solvent welding

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

bonding
Bonding

The union of materials by adhesives; to unite materials by means of an adhesive

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

the performance of a plastic part is affected by
The Performance of a Plastic Part is Affected By:
  • Type of load
  • Size and application of load
  • Frequency of application of load
  • Speed of load
  • Temperature the part will see, and for how long
  • Use and environment of load

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

mechanical properties
Mechanical Properties
  • Torsional strength
  • Modulus
  • Impact strength
  • Specific gravity
  • Water absorbtion
  • Coefficient of Friction (COF)
  • Tensile strength
  • Elongation
  • Compressive strength
  • Creep
  • Shear strength
  • Flexural strength

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

testing organizations
Testing Organizations
  • AFNOR - Association Francaise de Normalisation (France)
  • BSI - British Standards Institution (UK)
  • IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
  • JIS - Japanese Industrial Standards

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

tensile strength
Tensile Strength

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

elongation
Elongation

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

compressive strength
Compressive Strength
  • Measured in pounds per square inch (PSI)
  • Higher PSI = harder to compress

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

creep
Creep
  • Associated with compressive strength
  • Creep at room temperature is called “cold flow”

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

shear strength
Shear Strength

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

flexural strength
Flexural Strength

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

torsional strength
Torsional Strength

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

modulus
Modulus
  • Also referred to as “stiffness”
  • Used in conjunction with strengths (flexural modulus, tensile modulus, etc.)
  • Higher modulus = stiffer material
  • Measured in PSI

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

impact strength

Izod Impact

Tensile Impact

Gardner Impact

Impact Strength

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

specific gravity
Specific Gravity
  • Related to the density of material
  • Can be used to determine the weight of material
  • Specific gravity of less than 1.0 will float in water

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

water absorption
Water Absorption
  • Measured by the percentage of swell
  • Think of a sponge as having high percentage absorption

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

coefficient of friction cof
Coefficient of Friction (COF)
  • Resistance to sliding (slickness)
  • Low COF = more slippery (think of “wet ice” as having lowest COF)
  • Static COF refers to initial movement from rest
  • Dynamic COF refers to being already in motion

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

thermal properties
Thermal Properties
  • Coefficient of thermal expansion
  • Heat deflection temperature
  • Continuous service temperature
  • Melting point
  • Thermal conductivity

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

coefficient of thermal expansion cte
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
  • Change in size as temperature changes
  • Lower value = less change with temperature

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

heat deflection temperature hdt
Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT)
  • Temperature up to which a material can perform, under load, without distorting
  • Measured in degrees Fahrenheit, usually under 264 PSI
  • Used most widely to predict performance

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

continuous service temperature cst
Continuous Service Temperature (CST)
  • Highest temperature a material can withstand and still retain at least 50% of its properties
  • Measured in degrees Fahrenheit, in air
  • In high temperatures, both CST and HDT must be considered

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

melting point
Melting Point

Temperature at which a crystalline thermoplastic

changes from solid to liquid

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

thermal conductivity
Thermal Conductivity
  • How much heat a material will conduct
  • Most plastics are good “insulators” (do not conduct heat well)
  • Higher value = more heat conducted
  • Thermal conductivity of plastics is 300 to 2,500 times less than most metals

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

electrical properties
Electrical Properties
  • Volume resistivity
  • Surface resistivity
  • Dielectric constant
  • Dielectric strength
  • Dissipation factor
  • Arc resistance
  • Flammability

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

volume resistivity
Volume Resistivity
  • Ability of electricity to flow through a material
  • Measured in ohms/cm
  • Lower value = more easily current flows
  • Higher value = better resistor or insulator

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

surface resistivity
Surface Resistivity
  • Ability of electricity to flow over the surface of a material
  • Same measurements as volume resistivity
  • Used to evaluate material when static discharge characteristics are critical

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

surface resistivity42
Surface Resistivity

Insulative Range

Conductive Range

Static Dissipative Range

20

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

5

1 10 10 10 10 10

10 10 10 10 10

Shielding Range

6

7

8

10 10 10

106 to 108

Critical Range for ESD Control

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

dielectric constant
Dielectric Constant

That property of a dielectric that determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for unit potential gradient

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

dielectric strength
Dielectric Strength
  • Effectiveness of material as an insulator
  • Measured in volts/.001 thickness
  • Higher value = better insulator
  • Voltage is increased until material arcs, showing a breakdown

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

dissipation factor
Dissipation Factor

Tangent of the loss angle of the insulating material

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

arc resistance
Arc Resistance

Time required for an arc to establish a conductive path on the surface of an organic material

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1

flammability
Flammability
  • Measured by UL94 ratings
  • Most favorable ratings are given to materials that extinguish themselves rapidly, and do not drip flaming particles
  • Scale from highest burn rate => most flame retardant is HB, V-2, V-1, V-0, 5V

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 1