Planning StrategicallyLL558DWeek 7 Text: Strategic Planning for Public and Private Organizations (3rd Edition) Readings: Chapter 9 “Implementing Strategies and Plans Successfully” Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes.
Introduction Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. In Week 7, we will take into consideration questions surrounding implementation. Once a strategy has been accepted, an implementation team will tackle the various practical aspects of putting the plan into place. It’s important for planners to keep their feet on the ground when considering the possible problems their strategy could face. If the strategy turns out to be difficult to implement, those problems could lead to early termination of the plan.
Key Questions Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. • How do we create an action plan for strategy implementation? • When is it appropriate to use direct vs. staged implementation.? • What are some of the possible obstacles to successful plan implementation? • What are some techniques for avoiding these obstacles whenever possible?
Key Concepts Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. Strategy management Outputs Outcomes Budget
Plan Implementation Strategic Planning Process Action Plans Successfully Implemented Plan • Good planning puts into place core information needed for the implementation action plan, such as the budget. Future Vision Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. • The strategic planning process adds value as we learn about the organization. • Adaptive learning refers to how we gain and apply information gathered during this process. • The ultimate value arises from a successfully implemented plan.
Subordinate Desired Outcomes Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. We can expect valuable lessons as we work to overcome obstacles and measure outcomes (p. 239 - 240): • Swift and smooth introduction and uptake of new strategies. • Deeper understanding of what needs to be done, when and by whom to facilitate plan implementation. • Training is an important element sometimes excluded. • Adaptive learning as unexpected issues or flaws in the plan come to the surface and require adjustments. • Retain major features of the plan should the plan implementation turn out to have one or more moving targets. • Summative evaluations that show: • Outputs: Products, services, actions or other substantive changes (p. 240) • Outcomes: Benefits to stakeholders derived from outputs, plus larger meanings attached to the outputs. • Redesigned and revitalized organizational or inter-organizational community.
New Programs and Projects Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. • By grouping activities into programs or projects, we can clarify our goals and targets. (pp. 243 – 244) • If the strategic plan calls for creation of new programs or projects, implementers could encounter: (pp. 242 – 243) • Resistance from stakeholders who see traditional values challenged • Stakeholders who believe their roles are challenged or might disappear. • Personnel issues: • Examples: Problems with assignments, pay scales, incentives. • Need for training • Clashes with prior commitments • Emergence of new internal political, budget or administrative priorities. • Absence of administrative support or other resources. • Unclear rules and methods of operation
Special Role of Budget Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. Bryson makes several recommendations regarding budget. Among his most important reminders: (pp. 244 – 248) • Strategic planning should take into account the budget cycle. • If the plan is timed correctly, it can influence the budget decisions that will be put in place. • Be clear about performance expectations. • Show how success will be measured for each sum requested. • Treat each budget item separately. • If one item is reduced or denied, the rest won’t go down like dominoes. • Remember that budgeting is difficult. • S/he who controls budget has power. Balance centralization of budget power with distribution of budget control. • Involve good analysts and veterans who can assess both the costs and politics of budgeting.
Guidelines to Avoid Possible Obstacles Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. Bryson again provides guidelines. Highlights include: (249 – 258) • Choose your implementation team carefully. • Include the planners in the implementation process (including budget discussions) to bridge the transition to implementation. • Know which changes can be done quickly and provide quick wins vs. which changes take time. • A few quick wins at the outset of implementation is a tactic that can raise spirits. • Do not go forward woefully understaffed and under-budgeted. • Understand in advance which skilled personnel you will need on the teams. • Include strong strategic managers as well as technical people. • Keep the implementation moving along, lest other priorities take over.
Communication Wards Off Problems • The principles of servant leadership tell us to take care of our constituents. People cannot feel cared for if they don’t understand what is going on, or if they believe they are overworked and underpaid! Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. • Fear of change most often is fear of the unknown. • Good strategic management cannot be separated from good communication. • Make use of plan documents, newsletters, meetings, published guidelines to bring stakeholders on board. • Publish and celebrate milestones. • Use training sessions: • Training is used to communicate roles and activities that accompany new programs and projects. • Staff that feels prepared will be more willing to participate and support the initiative with good will.
Direct vs. Staged Implementation • For either type of implementation, it’s necessary to have a skilled, experienced, proven management team in place. Without such a team, implementation problems could be interpreted as flaws in the strategy. Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. “Direct implementation incorporates changes into all relevant sites essentially simultaneously, and stated implementation incorporates changes sequentially into groups of sites.” (p. 258) • Direct implementation is used when strategic changes are: • Relatively simple, • There is a crisis demanding total action • There are other reasons that require immediate coordination and preclude a staged approach. (p. 259) • Indirect Implementation is used for complex implementations: • Difficulties can range from technical challenges to political opposition. • Demonstration cases to prove the viability of plans and demonstrate strengths and weaknesses.
Challenge Lewis University LL558D. Reminder: These slides are not intended to replace your own notes. • Other courses you have taken, or other experiences in your career, have given you insight into leadership practices. • What skills do you think are most important for leading employees through the implementation of a strategic plan when the plan requires that some of them adjust to new job roles and responsibilities?