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Islam, Judaism & Christianity

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  1. Islam, Judaism & Christianity

  2. Comparative Religions

  3. Comparative Religions

  4. Origins and History of Each Faith

  5. Origins of Each Faith • Date and Place founded: • Judaism – approximately 1300 B.C. in Palestine • Some say the date is unknown • Christianity – approximately 33 A.D. in Palestine • Islam – 622 A.D. in Saudi Arabia

  6. Founders and Early Leaders • Founders and Early Leaders • Judaism – Abraham and Moses • Christianity – Jesus • Islam - Muhammad

  7. Brief History on Origins • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism around 2000 B.C. • Judaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths (religions with one God). • Christianity - Founded by Jesus Christ, who was crucified around A.D. 30 in Jerusalem • After his death his followers came to believe in him as the Christ, the Messiah. • Islam - Founded in Arabia by Muhammad between A.D. 610 and A.D. 632

  8. Spread of Each Faith • Early Expansion • Judaism – Little expansion mostly confined to Israel • Christianity – by the end of the 4th century Christianity spread across the entire Roman Empire • Islam – Within 12 years, entire Arabian peninsula • After 100 years stretched from Spain to Southeast Asia

  9. Terms for Followers and Clergy • Followers Called: • Judaism Jews • Christianity  Christians • Islam  Muslims • Clergy Called: • Judaism  rabbis • Christianity  bishop, pastor, ministers, priest • Islam  imams

  10. Judaism Timeline • 1800 BCE  Hebrews flee Canaan, migrate to Egypt (enslaved). • Lead by Moses to Sinai Peninsula. Covenant w/God. • 1 God, 10 Commandments, Chosen People • 1025 BCE form kingdom of Israel in Fertile Crescent. • Kings David & Solomon help reach greatest glory • 500 BCE Persians take over, Return to Israel & rebuild temple in Jerusalem. • 70 CE  Romans expel Jews from Israel/Palestine – diaspora… • Won’t return until late 1800s

  11. Christianity • Jesus born in Roman ruled Palestine (Bethlehem) • Carpenter’s apprentice • Studied w/ rabbis - Preacher 30 yrs old • Some believed he was the messiah – Savior from foreign rule, restore kingdom • Roman’s, scared of popularity & refusal to accept emperor as a god, crucified him in 33 CE. • Followers, Christians, spread word • Everyone equal, salvation & eternal life • Persecuted by Romans, became martyrs • 313 CE, Emperor Constantine converts • 395 CE, official religion Roman Empire

  12. Islam Timeline • 610 CEAngel Gabriel tells Mohammed he is to be the messenger of God/Allah • Merchant in Mecca • 622  flee to Medina, build 1st mosque • Hejira – Yr 1 of Muslim Calendar • Prophet • Expansion of Islam • Uses war & political maneuvering to spread ideas • 632 control Peninsula • 732 Atlantic to Indus

  13. How They Worship

  14. Where and When They Worship • House of Worship • Judaism: synagogue or temple • Christianity: church, cathedral, chapel • Islam: mosque • Day of Worship • Judaism: Saturday • Christianity: Sunday • Islam: Friday

  15. Languages of Faiths • Original Language • Judaism: Hebrew • Christianity: Aramaic and Greek, then Latin • Islam: Arabic • Names of God • Judaism: Yahweh and Elohim • Christianity: God, the Trinity • Islam: Allah

  16. Holy/Religious Texts

  17. Sacred Texts of Each Faith • Sacred Texts • Judaism: Hebrew Bible, Torah, Talmud • Christianity: Old Testament and New Testament • Islam: Qur’an (Koran)

  18. Beliefs

  19. Monotheistic Beliefs • Ultimate Reality (Type of Theism) • Judaism: One God • Christianity: Trinity (God the father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit) • Islam: One God

  20. Divine Revelation---God’s Words How do we know about God? • Judaism: through prophets; recorded in the Hebrew Bible • Christianity: through prophets and Jesus as recorded in the Old and New Testament • Islam: through God’s final prophet Muhammad; recorded in the Qur’an

  21. Identity of Jesus • Judaism: False prophet • Christianity: Son of God, the Messiah, Savior • Islam: prophet of God

  22. Death of Jesus • Judaism: death by Crucifixion • Christianity: death by Crucifixion • Islam: Did not die, but ascended into heaven (a disciple took his place)

  23. Resurrection of Jesus • Judaism: Denied • Christianity: Affirmed • Islam: Denied; since he did not die

  24. Means of Salvation • Judaism: Belief in one God; good deeds • Christianity: correct belief, good deeds; by faith accept Christ as Savior (Protestants) • Islam: Belief in one God; good deeds and follow Five Pillars of Faith

  25. Afterlife • Judaism: eternal heaven/ eternal hell • Christianity: eternal heaven/ eternal hell • Islam: eternal paradise (heaven)/ eternal hell

  26. Symbols of Faiths

  27. Symbols • Judaism: Star of David • Christianity: cross • Islam: crescent with name of Allah in Arabic

  28. Views of Fellow Abrahamic Religions

  29. View of Fellow Abrahamic Religions • Judaism: “Islam and Christianity are false interpretations and extensions of Judaism.” • Christianity: “Judaism is a true religion, but with incomplete revelation. Islam is a false religion.” • Islam: “Jews and Christians are respected as fellow believers, but with wrong beliefs and only partial revelation.”

  30. Followers

  31. Where They Can Be Found • Major Locations TODAY • Judaism: Europe, Israel, North America • Christianity: Europe, North and South America • Islam: Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia

  32. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  33. Current Worldwide Followers TODAY • Judaism: 14 million (ranks 12th) • Christianity: 2 billion (ranks 1st) • Islam: 1.3 billion (ranks 2nd) In the USA • Judaism: 5.6 million • Christianity: 159 million • Islam: 1.1 million

  34. Judaism In More Depth

  35. Judaism • religion of just one people: the Jews. • first to teach belief in only one God. • Two other important religions developed from Judaism: Christianity and Islam.

  36. Judaism Briefly • Judaism is around 3500 years old and is the oldest of the world's four great monotheistic religions (religions with only one God). • It's also the smallest, with only about 12 million followers around the world. • Its holy city is Jerusalem. • The Jewish calendar is based on 29 or 30 days therefore they have 12.13 months.

  37. Judaism Beliefs • Jews believe that there is a single God who not only created the universe, but with whom every Jew can have an individual and personal relationship. • They believe in heaven, but that God determines where they go after life on earth. • Give a tithe (10%). • Ten Commandments is the basic code of law.

  38. Judaism • Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a deliverer) to unite them and lead them in His way. • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah. • The Jewish people do not agree; they anticipate His arrival in the future.

  39. Jewish Philosophy • God is one and unique • God is the creator • God is transcendent • God is immanent. • God is lawgiver • God is personal • We have the obligation to worship • The Torah is God's law • God is judge • The Messiah will come.

  40. Judaism Holy Book • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah(the first five books of the Christian Bible) • Others include Judaism's oral tradition, the written form of which is known as the Talmud. • The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy • Another important book is the "Talmud," serving primarily as a guide to the civil and religious laws of Judaism. • Hebrew is read right to left.

  41. Judaism Place of Worship • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples. • Men and women usually sit separately. • Worship is led by a Rabbi. • Friday evening is time for worship. Stamford Hill, London

  42. Christianity In More Depth

  43. Christianity briefly • Christianity is the world's biggest religion, with about 2.2 billion followers worldwide. • It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.

  44. Christianity • The early Hebrews who eventually developed into the Jewish religion became the foundation of Christianity. • Jesus, or the Messiah, was a Jewish boy who disagreed with some of the Jewish principles of his day began to profess a new way of thinking. • This eventually led to the beginning of the Christian religion. • The central point of Christian belief is that God, the Father, entered into human history as the Son, Jesus of Nazereth, and arose as the Holy Spirit. 

  45. Christian Philosophy • God is the Creator of the universe. There is one God, Who is Three  Persons-      Father, Son and Holy Spirit. • Jesus is both fully man and fully God.  He was born of the Virgin Mary  Crucified, resurrected from the dead, and ascended to the Father.

  46. Christianity Beliefs • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his Crucifixion (the Resurrection) • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament • Christians believe that there is only one God, but that this one God consists of 3 "persons" • Christians believe that God made the world.

  47. Christianity Beliefs continued Christians believe that they can have a personal relationship with God, and that they are saved by faith, not works. Grace is the law code. They believe in actual heaven and hell. Sin and Evil are realities in our existence. They believe that the Bible is the inspired word of God. The leader of Christianity was Jesus, and the followers was his 12 disciples. Their giving is a tithe or offerings.

  48. Christians Holy Book • The Bible is the Christian holy book. • It is divided into the Old and New Testaments. • Parts of the writing contained in the Old Testament are also sacred to Jewish and Muslim people.

  49. Christian Place of Worship • The Christian place of worship is called a Church, which are built in the shape of a cross with the altar facing east towards the rising sun. • Services are led by a priest, pastor or reverend. • Day of worship is normally Sunday but most recently Saturday has been added. Westminster Abbey London