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Name: Dr. Anvik Office: Hebler 214-D Phone number: 963-2901 CWU page: www.cwu.edu /~ janvik Syllabus: www.cwu.edu /~ janvik /cs101. Listening Skills.

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slide1

Name: Dr. Anvik

Office: Hebler 214-D

Phone number: 963-2901

CWU page: www.cwu.edu/~janvik

Syllabus: www.cwu.edu/~janvik/cs101

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Good listening skills make students /workers more productive. The ability to listen carefully will allow you to:

    • better understand assignments and what is expected of you;
    • build rapport with teachers, fellow students, co-workers…
    • show support
    • work better in a team-based environment
    • resolve problems better
    • answer questions and …
    • find underlying meanings in what others say
    • build better personal relationships!

Why You Need Good Listening Skills?

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Listening Skills

The average college student spends about 14 hours per week in class listening (or perhaps I should say "hearing"--there is a difference!) to lectures. See if you can improve your listening skills by following some of the strategies below:

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Maintain eye contact with the instructor. Of course you will need to look at your notebook to write your notes, but eye contact keeps you focused on the job at hand and keeps you involved in the lecture.

  • Focus on content, not delivery. Have you ever counted the number of times a teacher clears his/her throat in a fifteen minute period? If so, you weren't focusing on content.
  • Avoid emotional involvement. When you are too emotionally involved in listening, you tend to hear what you want to hear--not what is actually being said. Try to remain objective and open-minded.
  • Avoid distractions. Don't let your mind wander or be distracted by the person shuffling papers near you. If the classroom is too hot or too cold try to remedy that situation if you can. The solution may require that you dress more appropriately to the room temperature.
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Treat listening as a challenging mental task. Listening to an academic lecture is not a passive act--at least it shouldn't be. You need to concentrate on what is said so that you can process the information into your notes.

  • Stay active by asking mental questions. Active listening keeps you on your toes. Here are some questions you can ask yourself as you listen. What key point is the professor making? How does this fit with what I know from previous lectures? How is this lecture organized?
  • Use the gap between the rate of speech and your rate of thought. You can think faster than the lecturer can talk. That's one reason your mind may tend to wander. All the above suggestions will help you keep your mind occupied and focused on what being said. You can actually begin to anticipate what the professor is going to say as a way to keep your mind from straying. Your mind does have the capacity to listen, think, write and ponder at the same time, but it does take practice.
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Even when, to both teachers and students, lecturing appears to be working, (students intently listening, nodding heads, taking notes), what’s going on in the minds of students probably looks a lot like what’d be going on on the boat full of my friends – distraction, lack of interest, and only a vague recollection of what was said. Even though it can appear that lecture-based, PowerPoint-driven learning is effective, it rarely is, and is almost never as effective a use of time as the learning-by-doing approach that could be done in its stead.

  • Roger Shank
  • (University of Saskatchewan)
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Active listening…

is a communication technique used in counseling, training and conflict resolution, which requires the listener to feed back what they hear to the speaker, by way of re-stating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words, to confirm what they have heard and moreover, to confirm the understanding of both parties.

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Active Listening Skills

There are three key elements of active listening: comprehending, retaining, responding.

Comprehending

Comprehension is "shared meaning between parties in a communication transaction". This is the first step in the listening process. The first challenge for the listener is accurately identifying speech sounds and understanding and synthesizing these sounds as words. We are constantly bombarded with auditory stimuli, so the listener has to select which of those stimuli are speech sounds and choose to pay attention to the appropriate sounds (attending).

The second challenge is being able to discern breaks between discernible words, or speech segmentation. This becomes significantly more difficult with an unfamiliar language because the speech sounds blend together into a continuous jumble. Determining the context and meanings of each word is essential to comprehending a sentence.

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Retaining

This is the second step in the listening process. Memory is essential to the listening process because the information we retain when involved in the listening process is how we create meaning from words. We depend on our memory to fill in the blanks when we're listening. Because everyone has different memories, the speaker and the listener may attach different meanings to the same statement. However, our memories are fallible and we can't remember everything that we've ever listened to.

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There are many reasons why we forget some information that we've received:

  • The first is cramming. When you cram there is a lot of information entered into your short term memory. Shortly after cramming, when you don't need the information anymore, it is purged from your brain before it can be transferred into your long term memory.
  • The second reason is that you aren't paying attention when you receive the information.
  • Alternatively, when you receive the information you may not attach importance to it, so it loses its meaning.
  • A fourth reason is at the time the information was received you lacked motivation to listen carefully to better remember it. Using information immediately after receiving it enhances information retention and lessens the forgetting curve. Retention is lessened when we engage in mindless listening, where little effort is made to listen to a speaker's message.

Mindful listening is active listening!

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Responding

Listening is an interaction between speaker and listener. It adds action to a normally passive process. The speaker looks for verbal and nonverbal responses from the listener to if the message is being listened to. Usually the response is nonverbal because if the response is verbal the speaker/listener roles are reversed so the listener becomes the speaker and is no longer listening. Based on the response the speaker chooses to either adjust or continue with his/her communication style.

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Active listening involves the listener observing the speaker's behavior and body language. Having the ability to interpret a person's body language lets the listener develop a more accurate understanding of the speaker's message. When the listener does not respond to the speaker's nonverbal language, (s)he engages in a content-only response which ignores the emotions that guide the message. Having heard, the listener may then paraphrase the speaker's words.

It is important to note that the listener is not necessarily agreeing with the speaker—simply stating what was said. In emotionally charged communications, the listener may listen for feelings. Thus, rather than merely repeating what the speaker has said, the active listener will describe the underlying emotion ("You seem to feel angry," or "You seem to feel frustrated, is that because ... ?").

Tactics

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Individuals in conflict often contradict each other. This has the effect of denying the validity of the other person's position. Ambushing occurs when one listens to someone else's argument for its weaknesses and ignore its strengths. The purpose is to attack the speaker’s position and support their own.

  • This may include a distortion of the speaker’s argument to gain a competitive advantage. Either party may react defensively, and they may lash out or withdraw. On the other hand, if one finds that the other party understands, an atmosphere of cooperation can be created. This increases the possibility of collaborating and resolving the conflict.
  • In the book Leader Effectiveness Training, Thomas Gordon, who coined the term "active listening,“ states "Active listening is certainly not complex. Listeners need only restate, in their own language, their impression of the expression of the sender. ... Still, learning to do Active Listening well is a rather difficult task ..."
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Barriers to active listening

  • All elements of communication, including listening, may be affected by barriers that can impede the flow of conversation.Such barriers include :
    • distractions
    • trigger words (words are being used,
    • accidentally, that are triggering people to
    • STOP listening)
    • vocabulary, and
    • limited attention span
  • Listening barriers may be psychological (e.g. emotions) or physical (e.g. noise and visual distraction).
  • Cultural differences including speakers' accents, vocabulary, and misunderstandings due to cultural assumptions often obstruct the listening process.
  • Frequently, the listener's personal interpretations, attitudes, biases, and prejudices lead to ineffective communication.
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Shift response

  • The first of these is the shift response which is the general tendency in a conversation to affix the attention to you.
  • There is competition between individuals for attention and a focus on self by shifting the topic; it is a me-oriented technique. The listener shifts from a passive position, receiver, to an active role, sender. This is a type of narcissism, the tendency of listeners to turn the topic of conversations to themselves without showing sustained interest in others listening.
  • With conversational narcissism there is a tendency to overuse the shift response and under use the support response. A support response is the opposite of a shift response; it is an attention giving method and a cooperative effort to focus the conversational attention on the other person. Instead of being me-oriented like shift response, it is we-oriented.It is the response most likely to be used by a competent communicator
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Overcoming listening barriers

To use the active listening technique to improve interpersonal communication, one puts personal emotions aside during the conversation, asks questions and paraphrases back to the speaker to clarify understanding, and one also tries to overcome all types of environment distractions.

Judging or arguing prematurely is a result of holding onto a strict personal opinion. This hinders the ability to be able to listen closely to what is being said. Furthermore, the listener considers the speaker's background, both cultural and personal, to benefit as much as possible from the communication process.

  • Eye contact and appropriate body languages are seen as important components to active listening.
  • Effective listening involves focusing on what the speaker is saying; at times the listener might come across certain key words which may help them understand the speaker.
  • The stress and intonation may also keep them active and away from distractions. Taking notes on the message can aid in retention.
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Misconceptions about listening

  • There are several misconceptions about listening:
  • The first of these is listening and hearing are the same thing.Hearing is the physiological process of registering sound waves as they hit the eardrum.
  • We have no control over what we hear.
  • The sounds we hear have no meaning until we give them their meaning in context.Listening on the other hand is an active process that constructs meaning from both verbal and nonverbal messages.
  • Active Listening has been developed as a concept in music and technology by François Pachet, researcher at Sony Computer Science Laboratory - Paris. Active listening in music refers to the idea that listeners can be given some degree of control on the music they listen to, by means of technological applications mainly based on artificial intelligence and information theory techniques, by opposition to traditional listening, in which the musical media is played passively by some neutral device.

Active listening in music