Chapter 18. The Fishes: Vertebrate Success in Water. Evolutionary Perspective. Phylogenetic Relationships Subphylum Craniata Skull surrounds brain, olfactory organs, eyes, and inner ear. Infraphylum Hyperotreti Infraphylum Vertebrata Fossils record
The Fishes: Vertebrate Success in Water
Figure 18.5 An ancient Silurian seafloor with two ostracoderms (Pteraspis and Anglaspis).
Figure 18.8 Paired pectoral and pelvic appendages of a member of the Gnathostomata.
Figure 18.9 Class Chondrichthyes. (a and b) Subclass Elasmobranchii.
(a) Reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi). (b) A bullseye stingray (Urolophus concentricus).
(c) Subclass Holocephali. The ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei).
Figure 18.11 Class Sarcopterygii. The lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa.
Figure 18.12 Class Sarcopterygii. The coelacanth Latimeria.
(a) Shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus).
(b) Paddlefish (Polydon spathula).
(a) A flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).
(b) Yellowtail snappers (Ocyurus chrysurus).
(a) Gill arches. (b) Trout lamellae. (c and d) Comparison of countercurrent and parallel current exchanges.
Figure 18.17 Possible sequence in the evolution of pneumatic sacs. (a) Origin as ventral outgrowths of esophagus.
(b) Primitive lungs. (c) Swim bladders move dorsal in position and lose connection to gut tract.
(a) Electrical fields are used to detect the presence of prey and other objects in a murky environment. (b) The electric fish (Gymnarchus niloticus).
Figure 18.21 The male garibaldi (Hypsypops rubicundus) cultivates a nest of red algae, entices a female to lay eggs in the nest, and defends the nest.
Figure 18.22 The fishapod Tiktaalik. This 375-million-year-old fossil helps us understand the transition between sarcopterygian fish and tetrapods. Its tetrapod-like features were probably used in foraging the water’s edge for prey.
Box Figure 18.3 The fossil record provides clear evidence of the evolution of the tetrapod limb. (a) The sarcopterygian Eusthenopteron.
(b) The sarcopterygian Sauripterus. (c) The forelimb of the tetrapod Acanthostega. (d) The hindlimb of the tetrapod Ichthyostega.