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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e. Chapter 3 PC Repair Fundamentals. Objectives. Learn about tools you’ll need as a PC support technician Learn how to develop a preventive maintenance plan and what to include in it Learn how to work inside a computer case

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objectives
Objectives
  • Learn about tools you’ll need as a PC support technician
  • Learn how to develop a preventive maintenance plan and what to include in it
  • Learn how to work inside a computer case
  • Learn what happens when you first turn on a PC before the OS is loaded

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Learn how to approach and solve a PC problem
  • Learn how to troubleshoot a failed boot before the OS is loaded

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

introduction
Introduction
  • Basic repair skills
    • Developing a maintenance plan
    • Implementing a maintenance plan
    • Working inside a computer case
    • Following sequence of events that occur at startup
  • Advanced repair skills
    • Using common-sense guidelines to solve problems
    • Interviewing a user
    • Determining if a problem occurs before or after boot
    • Troubleshooting and solving a problem of a failed boot

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

pc support technician tools
PC Support Technician Tools
  • Help you maintain a computer
  • Help you diagnose and repair computer problems
  • Criteria for choosing tools:
    • Level of PC support you expect to provide
    • Amount of money you can spend
  • Some essential tools:
    • Ground bracelet, ground mat, or ground gloves
    • Torx screwdriver set
    • Recovery CD, DVD, or floppy disk for target OS
  • Store tools in toolbox for PC troubleshooting

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide6
Figure 3-1 PC support technician tools

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

recovery cds
Recovery CDs
  • Used to boot a system
  • Also used to repair and reinstall Windows
  • Primary recovery CD sources
    • PC manufacturer (preferred)
    • Operating system distributor, such as Microsoft
  • Some hard drives have a hidden recovery partitions
    • A hidden partition can be used to reinstall Windows
    • A utility for creating recovery CDs may be provided
    • Access hidden utilities by pressing a Fn key at startup

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide8
Figure 3-2 Windows Setup CD and Windows Recovery CDs for a notebook computer

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

loop back plugs
Loop-Back Plugs
  • Used to test various ports
    • Some port types: serial, parallel, USB, network
  • How to use a loop-back plug
    • Plug in the loop-back plug
    • Run the software that comes with the plug

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide10
Figure 3-3 Loop-back plugs used to test serial and parallel ports

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

cleaning pads and solutions
Cleaning Pads and Solutions
  • Various types are designed for specific uses
  • Example: contact cleaner
    • Cleans contacts on expansion cards
  • Warning: solutions may be flammable and/or toxic
  • Sources of safety and emergency instructions:
    • Side of the can of solution
    • Material safety data sheet (MSDS)
  • Adhere to safety procedures of your employer
    • Example: fill out an accident report (if required)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide12
Figure 3-5 Each chemical you use should have available a material safety data sheet

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

post diagnostic cards
Post Diagnostic Cards
  • Report computer errors and conflicts at POST
  • How to use a POST diagnostic card:
    • Install card in an expansion slot on the motherboard
    • Attempt to boot your system
    • Record any error codes appearing in LED panel
    • Look up the entry associated with the error code
  • Examples of Post diagnostic cards:
    • PCI Error Testing/Debug Card by Winic Corporation
    • POST card V3 by Unicore Software, Inc.
    • Post Code Master by MSD, Inc.

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide14
Figure 3-6 Post Code Master diagnostic card by MSD, Inc.

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

personal computer preventive maintenance
Personal Computer Preventive Maintenance
  • Preventive maintenance reduces number of problems
  • Goals of preventive maintenance plans:
    • Prevent failures
    • Reduce repair costs
    • Reduce downtimes
  • Goal of disaster recovery plan: manage failures
  • Some causes of PC failure: heat, dust, spills, viruses

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

when a pc is your permanent responsibility
When a PC is your Permanent Responsibility
  • Tasks and procedures to prepare for troubleshooting
    • Keep good backups of data and system files
    • Document all setup changes, problems, and solutions
    • Protect the system against viruses and other attacks
      • Always use a firewall (software or hardware barrier)
      • Install and run antivirus software
      • Keep Windows Updates current
    • Physically protect your equipment

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide17
Figure 3-9 Configure antivirus software to scan e-mail and instant message attachments and to download updates automatically

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

creating a preventive maintenance plan
Creating a Preventive Maintenance Plan
  • Plan based on history or pattern of malfunctions
    • Example: PCs in dusty areas need more maintenance
  • Goals common to maintenance plans
    • Extend the working life of a PC
    • Anticipate problems that could disrupt service
    • Ensure data is secure and backed up
    • Provide support to PC users
  • Basic steps involved in designing a plan
    • Define your overall goals
    • Incorporate procedures for achieving goals

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

dealing with dust
Dealing with Dust
  • Dust accumulates in layers over components
  • Two major problems due to dust blankets
    • PC components directly overheat
    • Cooling fans jam, also resulting in overheating
  • Maintenance task: remove the layer of dust
  • Two tools used to remove dust:
    • Antistatic vacuum
    • Compressed air

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

preparing a computer for shipping
Preparing a Computer for Shipping
  • Adverse factors to consider:
    • Rough handling
    • Exposure to water, heat, and cold
    • Misplacement or theft of computer
  • Some shipping guidelines to follow:
    • Backup the hard drive onto a backup medium
    • Remove inserted disks, tape cartridges, or CDs
    • Coil and secure all external cords
    • Separately wrap hardware components
    • Purchase insurance on the shipment

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

disposing of used equipment
Disposing of Used Equipment
  • Various guidelines for disposing of equipment:
    • Table 3-2
    • Manufacturer documentation
    • Local environmental regulators
  • Danger posed by monitors and power supplies
    • Residual charge in capacitors can cause shock
    • Modern devices discharge if unplugged for 60 minutes
    • Older devices may require discharge with a probe
  • Destroy secondary storage devices with sensitive data

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide22
Table 3-2 Computer parts and how to dispose of them

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

how to work inside a computer case
How to Work Inside a Computer Case
  • Objective: dismantle a computer, put it back together
  • Some safety precautions to follow:
    • Make notes that will help you backtrack
    • Keep screws and spacers orderly
    • Do not stack boards on top of each other
    • Do not touch the chips on circuit boards
    • Do not use a graphite pencil to change DIP settings
    • Turn off the power, unplug and ground the computer
    • Do not remove covers of monitors or power supplies
    • Keep components away from hair and clothing

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

static electricity
Static Electricity
  • Build-up of charge due to absence of conductors
  • Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
    • Due to dissimilar electrical surfaces making contact
    • Only 10 volts of ESD can damage PC components
    • Walking across carpet generates up to 12,000 volts
  • Two types of damage: catastrophic and upset failure
  • Tool and methods for grounding yourself and the PC
    • Ground bracelet, ground mats, static shielding bags, antistatic gloves
  • If working inside a monitor, do not ground yourself

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide25
Figure 3-13 A ground bracelet, which protects computer components from ESD, can clip to the side of the computer case and eliminate ESD between you and the case

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

steps to take apart a computer
Steps to Take Apart a Computer
  • Essential tools:
    • Ground bracelet
    • Phillips-head screwdriver
    • Flat-head screwdriver, paper, and pen
  • Follow safety precautions at all times
  • Summary of Steps 1 - 4
    • 1. Enter CMOS and write down customized settings
    • 2. Power down the system, unplug all components
    • 3. Put the computer on a good-sized table
    • 4. Remove the cover of the PC

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide27
Figure 3-19 Removing the cover

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

steps to take apart a computer continued
Steps to Take Apart a Computer (continued)
  • Summary of steps 5 - 11
    • 5. Diagram cable connections and switch settings
    • 6. Identify cables connecting drives to motherboard
    • 7. Remove the cables to all drives
    • 8. Remove the expansion cards
    • 9. Remove the motherboard (or drives)
    • 10. Remove the power supply from the case
    • 11. Remove each drive (if not already removed)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide29
Figure 3-33 Remove the motherboard from the case

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

steps to put a computer back together
Steps to Put a Computer Back Together
  • 1. Install power supply, drives, motherboard, cards
  • 2. Connect all data and power cables
  • 3. Plug in the keyboard, monitor, and mouse
  • 4. Ask instructor to check work (if in a classroom)
  • 5. Turn on the power and check PC functions

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

understanding the boot process
Understanding the Boot Process
  • Key learning objectives
    • Know how to boot a PC
    • Understand what happens first when a PC is turned on
    • Understand how an operating system is loaded

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

booting a computer
Booting a Computer
  • Process that drives a computer to a working state
  • Hard (cold) boot: turn the power switch on
  • Soft (warm) boot: allow the OS to reboot
  • How to soft boot Windows XP
    • Click Start
    • Click Turn Off Computer
    • Click Restart

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

choosing between a hard boot and a soft boot
Choosing Between a Hard Boot and a Soft Boot
  • Hard boots are more stressful on machines
    • Power surges through system when PC is turned on
  • Reasons to choose a soft boot over hard boot
    • Less stressful on the machine
    • Faster due to skipping initial steps
  • Some computers have a soft and hard power switch
    • Soft power switch shuts down and restarts Windows
    • Hard power switch cuts power and restarts machine

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

the startup bios controls the beginning of the boot
The Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the Boot
  • The startup BIOS gets a system up and running
  • Four phases of the boot process:
    • BIOS runs the POST and assigns system resources
      • POST: power-on self test
    • BIOS searches for and loads an OS
    • OS configures system and completes its own loading
    • Application software is loaded and executed

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide35
Figure 3-40 Boot Step 1: The ROM BIOS startup program surveys hardware resources and needs and assigns system resources to satisfy those needs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

changing the boot sequence
Changing the Boot Sequence
  • BIOS looks to CMOS RAM to locate the OS
  • Boot sequence: order of drives checked for an OS
  • Change boot sequence using CMOS setup utilities
  • Access CMOS setup utilities when PC is turned on
    • Example: press F8 before Windows screen appears

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide37
Figure 3-42 Numbered steps show how BIOS searches for and begins to load an operating system (in this example, Windows NT/2000/XP is the OS)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

how to troubleshoot a pc problem
How to Troubleshoot a PC Problem
  • Assume the attitude of an investigator
  • Do not compound the problem by your own actions
  • Look at the problem as a learning opportunity
  • Ask questions until you understand the problem
  • Believe that you can solve the problem

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

steps to solving a pc problem
Steps to Solving a PC Problem
  • Key advice:
    • Ask good questions
    • Document the process
  • Four-step problem solving process:
    • Step 1: Interview the user
    • Step 2: Back up data
    • Step 3: Solve the problem
    • Step 4: Verify the fix and document the solution

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide40
Figure 3-44 General approach to troubleshooting

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

troubleshooting a failed boot
Troubleshooting a Failed Boot
  • It takes time to acquire troubleshooting skills
  • Hands-on training: troubleshooting a failed boot

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

my computer won t boot
My Computer Won’t Boot
  • First step: maintain your calm
  • Second step: develop a game plan
  • Figure 3-45 provides a procedure
    • Plan is driven by a set of yes-no questions
    • Example: Does the PC boot properly?
      • If no, troubleshooter is directed to another question
      • If yes, troubleshooter is directed to stop (for now)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide43
Figure 3-45 Use this flowchart when first facing a computer problem

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

troubleshooting major subsystems used for booting
Troubleshooting Major Subsystems Used For Booting
  • Categories of troubleshooting steps in Figure 3-45
    • The electrical subsystem
    • Essential hardware devices
      • The motherboard, memory, and the CPU
    • Video
    • Reading from the hard drive
  • Key aides: tables identifying error codes

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

slide45
Table 3-4 Beep codes and their meanings

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

summary
Summary
  • Some PC repair tools: recovery CDs, screwdrivers, POST, cleaning pads and solutions, diagnostic cards
  • Preventive maintenance plans extend the life of a PC
  • Follow an organization’s preventive maintenance plan, or develop one if it does not exist
  • Computers present chemical and electrical hazards
  • Protect components in case from ESD by grounding yourself and the PC

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Assembling and reassembling a PC prepares the technician for actual repair work
  • Startup BIOS controls when the boot process begins
  • Four step boot process: POST, loading the OS, OS initializing itself, loading and executing applications
  • Expert troubleshooters ask good questions
  • Before tackling a problem, develop a game plan

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

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