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エキゾチックな チャームハドロン・原子核. 安井繁宏 KEK. JAEA セミナー @2011.1.13. Contents. 1. Introduction 2. Charmed Nuclei with D mesons 3. Other Charmed Nuclear Systems 4. Experiments 5. Summary. 1. Introduction. Strangeness. Hyperons ( Λ , Σ , Ξ , ... ) K meson cf . Λ(1405). neutron. proton.

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slide1

エキゾチックなチャームハドロン・原子核

安井繁宏

KEK

JAEAセミナー@2011.1.13

slide2

Contents

1. Introduction

2. CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

3. OtherCharmedNuclear Systems

4. Experiments

5. Summary

slide3

1. Introduction

Strangeness

Hyperons (Λ, Σ, Ξ, ...)

K mesoncf. Λ(1405)

neutron

proton

Nucleus

slide4

1. Introduction

Hyperons (Λ, Σ, Ξ, ...)

K mesoncf. Λ(1405)

neutron

proton

StangenessNucleus

what are charm bottom nuclei

1. Introduction

Whatarecharm/bottomnuclei?

Charm/Bottom

neutron

proton

Nucleus

what are charm bottom nuclei1

1. Introduction

Whatarecharm/bottomnuclei?

Charm/Bottom

Baryons

Λc, Σc, Λb, Σb, …

Dover-Kahana (1977)

Iwao (1977)

Gatto-Paccanoni (1978)

Bando-Bando (1982)

...

neutron

proton

Nucleus

what are charm bottom nuclei2

1. Introduction

Whatarecharm/bottomnuclei?

Charm/Bottom

Mesons

hidden : ηc, J/ψ, ηb, Υ, …

open : D, D*, B, B*, …

neutron

proton

Nucleus

what are charm bottom nuclei3

1. Introduction

Whatarecharm/bottomnuclei?

Charm/Bottom

Mesons

hidden : ηc, J/ψ, ηb, Υ, …

open : D, D*, B, B*, …

Brodsky-Schmidt-Teramond (1990)

Luke-Manohar-Savage (1992)

Yokokawa-Sasaki-Hatsuda-

-Hayashigaki (2006)

Kawanai-Sasaki (2010)

...

neutron

proton

Nucleus

what are charm bottom nuclei4

1. Introduction

Whatarecharm/bottomnuclei?

Charm/Bottom

Mesons

hidden : ηc, J/ψ, ηb, Υ, …

open : D, D*, B, B*, …

Thisisoursubject!

neutron

proton

Nucleus

slide11

1. Introduction

Questions

1. Do charmed nuclei exist?

2. What is the real ground state of nuclear many body systems?

Strangeness nuclei are more “stable” than normal nuclei.

How about charmed nuclei?

3. How do nucleichangebystrangenessand/orcharm?

strangeness→ SU(3) flavorchiralsymmetry : SU(3)f

charm→ SU(2) spin symmetry : SU(2)f × SU(2)spin

4. Couldcharmednucleiexist intheuniverse?

Orarethey “artificial“ nucleiproducedonlybyus?

(à la artificial matter likenewmaterials in nano-science!)

slide14

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Q. What is the interaction between D (B) and N ?

D (B)

??

N

slide15

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Strangeness, Charm, Bottom, ...

K

N

D

N

B

N

K

N

D

N

B

N

SU(3)

SU(4)

SU(5)

Weinberg-Tomozawa

Lutz-Kolomeitsev (2004), Hoffmann-Lutz (2005), Mizutani-Ramos (2006), Gamermann-

Oset-Strottman-Vacas (2007), Haidenbauer-Krein-Meissner-Sibirtsev (2007),Tolos-

Molina-Gamermann-Gracia-Reico-Nieves-Oset-Ramos (2010) ...

slide16

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Strangeness, Charm, Bottom, ...

K*

K* is almost irrelevant in dynamics.

vector

D* and B* are new ingredients!

400 MeV

D*

B*

140 MeV

pseudo-

scalar

45 MeV

D

B

K

500 MeV

1870 MeV

5280 MeV

Chiral Symmetry

Heavy Quark Symmetry

slide17

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Strangeness, Charm, Bottom, ...

KN interaction D(B)N interaction

K

D

B

N

N

N

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

K

D

B

N

N

N

One pion is absent.

(short range force)

One pion is present.

(long range force)

Weinberg-Tomozawa

One pion exchange potential

(OPEP)

S. Y. and K. Sudoh, PRD80, 034008 (2009)

slide18

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Strangeness, Charm, Bottom, ...

KN interaction D(B)N interaction

K

D*

B*

N

N

N

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

K

D

B

N

N

N

One pion is absent.

(short range force)

One pion is present.

(long range force)

Weinberg-Tomozawa

One pion exchange potential

(OPEP)

S. Y. and K. Sudoh, PRD80, 034008 (2009)

slide19

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Strangeness, Charm, Bottom, ...

KN interaction D(B)N interaction

K

D

B

N

N

N

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

K

D*

B*

N

N

N

One pion is absent.

(short range force)

One pion is present.

(long range force)

Weinberg-Tomozawa

One pion exchange potential

(OPEP)

S. Y. and K. Sudoh, PRD80, 034008 (2009)

slide20

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Strangeness, Charm, Bottom, ...

KN interaction D(B)N interaction

K

D*

B*

N

N

N

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

p, ω, ρ

K

D*

B*

N

N

N

One pion is absent.

(short range force)

One pion is present.

(long range force)

Weinberg-Tomozawa

One pion exchange potential

(OPEP)

S. Y. and K. Sudoh, PRD80, 034008 (2009)

slide21

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

One pion exchange potential (OPEP)

Heavy Quark Symmetry

G. Burdman and J.F. Donoghue (1992)

M.B. Wise (1992)

T.-M. Yan, H.-Y. Cheng, C.-Y. Cheung,

G.-L. Lin, Y.C. Lin and H.-L. Yu (1997)

D(*)

N

p, ω, ρ

with

P=D, B

vector + pseudoscalar

D(*)

N

One-Pion-Exchange Potential

S. Y. and K. Sudoh, PRD80, 034008 (2009)

slide22

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Q. Are there bound states of D (B) and N ?

D (B)

??

N

D(cq)-N(qqq)

B(bq)-N(qqq)

* No annihilation process

slide23

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

S. Y. and K. Sudoh,

PRD80, 034008 (2009)

Classification of states

|state> = |PN>+ |P*N> P=D(cq), B (bq)

* No annihilation process

JP=1/2- (I=0 or 1)

|PN; 2S1/2 > + |P*N; 2S1/2 > + |P*N; 4D1/2 >

1

1/2

0

1/2

1

1/2

d-wave

s-wave

s-wave

+

+

N

N

N

P*

P

P*

Strong tensor attraction mixing s- and d-waves

Cf. s-wave and d-wave tensor mixing in deuterons

JP=3/2- (I=0 or 1) → Similar, but no boundstate

slide24

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

JP=1/2-, I=0

wavefunctionsobtainedbyvariationalmethod

DN

B.E. [MeV] 3.0

r [fm] 2.3

DN (2S1/2)

strongtensorcoupling

D*N (4D1/2)

D*N (2S1/2)

slide25

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

DN and BN boundstates JP=1/2- (I=0)

Strangeness

Charm

Bottom

KN (pentaquark?)

100 MeV

K + N

D + N

B + N

3 MeV

100 MeV

threshold

DN bound state

BN bound state

|DN; I=0> = |D-p> + |D0n> + |D*-p> + |D*0n>

sqqqq

cqqqq

bqqqq

weak decay

D*→Dπisclosed.

K+

p

π -

π -

slide26

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Λ(1405)

DN state

H dibaryon

BN state

B.E. 100 MeV

2255 MeV

2807 MeV

6217 MeV

1433 MeV

ΞN

DN

BN

KN

ΛΛ

B.E. 3 MeV

2230MeV

πΣ

1330 MeV

slide27

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Λ(1405)

DN state

H dibaryon

BN state

B.E. 100 MeV

2255 MeV

2807 MeV

6217 MeV

1433 MeV

ΞN

DN

BN

KN

ΛΛ

B.E. 3 MeV

2230MeV

Charm/Bottom nuclei

πΣ

1330 MeV

Hypernuclei

Knuclei

slide28

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

Q. Are there exotic nuclei with D (B) ?

D (B)

N

N

A=2 charmed (bottom) nucleus ?

slide29

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

S. Y. and K. Sudoh,

PRD80, 034008 (2009)

DNN and BNN systems

Classification of states

JP=0-

D(*)

S=1/2

I=0

I=1/2

|D(NN)S=0,I=1> + |D*(NN)S=1,I=0>

S=1/2

I=0

|D(NN)S=0,I=1>

N

I=3/2

N

JP=1-

I=1/2

|D(NN)S=1,I=0> + |D*(NN)S=1,I=0> +|D*(NN)S=0,I=1>

I=3/2

|D(NN)S=0,I=1>

slide30

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

S. Y. and K. Sudoh,

PRD80, 034008 (2009)

DNN and BNN systems

Classification of states

Fraction of (D(*)N)S=1/2,I=0

JP=0-

D(*)

S=1/2

I=0

I=1/2

|D(NN)S=0,I=1> + |D*(NN)S=1,I=0>

S=1/2

I=0

1/4

3/4

|D(NN)S=0,I=1>

N

I=3/2

N

0

JP=1-

I=1/2

|D(NN)S=1,I=0> + |D*(NN)S=1,I=0> +|D*(NN)S=0,I=1>

1/6

1/4

1/4

I=3/2

|D(NN)S=0,I=1>

0

slide31

2.CharmedNucleiwith D mesons

S. Y. and K. Sudoh,

PRD80, 034008 (2009)

DNN and BNN systems

Classification of states

Fraction of (D(*)N)S=1/2,I=0

JP=0-

D(*)

S=1/2

I=0

I=1/2

|D(NN)S=0,I=1> + |D*(NN)S=1,I=0>

S=1/2

I=0

1/4

3/4

|D(NN)S=0,I=1>

N

I=3/2

N

weak decay

K+ π- π- + p + p

0

JP=1-

I=1/2

|D(NN)S=1,I=0> + |D*(NN)S=1,I=0> +|D*(NN)S=0,I=1>

1/6

1/4

1/4

I=3/2

|D(NN)S=0,I=1>

0

weak decay

K+ π- π- + d

Cf. D-→ K+ π- π-

slide34

3.OtherCharmedNuclear Systems

J/ψ-nuclei

J/ψ-Ninteractionisalwaysattractive.

Buttheattractionis so weak.

Theremaybeboundstatefor A>10.

~

Λc-nuclei

Λc-Ninteractionwouldbeattractive.

Butdetailsarenotyetclear.

Hc-dibaryon

Diquarkpicturesuggestsudusucstates.

Repulsiveinstantoninteractionisweaker.

slide35

3.OtherCharmedNuclear Systems

S. H. Lee and S. Y.,

Eur. Phys. J. C64, 283 (2009)

Hc-dibaryon (udusuc)

Hc

Λc

Σ

s

+

c

c

u

u

u

u

s

d

d

S=-1

-28.9 MeV

u

u

-17.3 MeV

S=-2

B.E.

S=-3

-17.4 MeV

slide36

3.OtherCharmedNuclear Systems

S. H. Lee and S. Y.,

Eur. Phys. J. C64, 283 (2009)

Hc-dibaryon (udusuc)

Hc

Λc

Σ

s

+

c

c

u

u

u

u

s

d

d

S=-1

-28.9 MeV

u

u

-17.3 MeV

S=-2

B.E.

S=-3

-17.4 MeV

slide37

3.OtherCharmedNuclear Systems

S. H. Lee and S. Y.,

Eur. Phys. J. C64, 283 (2009)

Hc-dibaryon (udusuc)

Hc

Λc

Σ

s

+

c

c

u

u

u

u

s

d

d

S=-1

-28.9 MeV

u

u

-17.3 MeV

S=-2

B.E.

S=-3

-17.4 MeV

slide38

3.OtherCharmedNuclear Systems

S. H. Lee and S. Y.,

Eur. Phys. J. C64, 283 (2009)

slide41

4. Experiments

Factorization Theorem

  • Cross section can be factorized in pQCD:
    • Inclusive hadron production

PDF and FF:

Determined using experimental data

Amplitude:

Calculable in pQCD

slide42

4. Experiments

Charm Production @J-PARC

  • Subprocesses for Dbar production
    • O(as2) 2→2 tree-level channels in LO

NLO → K factor x LO

well-calculated inperturbation theory in αs

J-PARC → pp

ggdominance

GSI → pp

qqdominance

numerical results

4. Experiments

Numerical Results
  • Cross section of D-bar production:
  • Total cross section at the energies of J-PARC and GSI-FAIR.

J-PARC

√s=8 GeV

N = 15.5x106 /week

√s=10 GeV

N = 66.0x106 /week

GSI PANDA, PAX

√s=5.5 GeV

N = 0.50x106 /week

N = 8.33x106 /week

√s=14.5 GeV

Yield : N = σ・L・Br・ε

LJ-PARC = 3.6 x 106 nb-1/week

Br(D-→K+π-π-) = 0.094 from PDG09

LGSI = 6.3 x 104 nb-1/week

ε 〜 0.2

numerical results1

4. Experiments

Numerical Results
  • D-bar N cross section is estimated as follows.
  • Total cross section at the energies of J-PARC and GSI-FAIR.

π + contact B potential model

J-PARC

N = 23.7x103 /week

N = 100.0 x103 /week

GSI PANDA, PAX

N = 0.75x103 /week

N = 12.58x103 /week

slide45

4. Experiments

Relativisticheavyioncollisions as sources of multi-particles

slide46

4. Experiments

Relativisticheavyioncollisions as sources of multi-particles

RHIC/LHC

Nucleus

Nucleus

slide47

4. Experiments

Relativisticheavyioncollisions as sources of multi-particles

RHIC/LHC

QGP

Nucleus

Nucleus

slide48

4. Experiments

Relativisticheavyioncollisions as sources of multi-particles

RHIC/LHC

Hadronphase

p, Λ, ...

QGP

π, K, ...

f0, a0, ...

STAR (2003)

Λ3H

STAR (2010)

Exotics?

slide49

4. Experiments

Relativisticheavyioncollisions as sources of multi-particles

RHIC/LHC

Hadronphase

p, Λ, ...

π, K, ...

f0, a0, ...

STAR (2003)

Λ3H

STAR (2010)

Exotics?

slide50

4. Experiments

yields of hadronsfromheavyioncolisions

S. Cho et al. (theExHICcollaboration), arXiv:1011.0852 [nucl-th]

ExHIC (Exotics from Heavy Ion Collisions) collaboration

S. Cho (Yonsei U.),T. Furumoto(YITP and RIKEN), T. Hyodo (Tokyo Inst. Technology),D. Jido (YITP), C.-M. Ko (Texas A&M U.), S. H. Lee (Yonsei U. and YITP), M. Nielsen (U. de Paulo), A. Ohnishi (YITP), T. Sekihara (YITP and Kyoto U.), K. Yazaki (YITP and RIKEN), S. Y. (KEK)

slide51

4. Experiments

S. Cho et al. (theExHICcollaboration), arXiv:1011.0852 [nucl-th]

Hadronmolecule

1

Normal hadron

0.2

Multi-quark

slide52

4. Experiments

CERN, 2 Dec. 2010 J. Schukraft

slide53

4. Experiments

CERN, 2 Dec. 2010 J. Schukraft

slide54

4. Experiments

CERN, 2 Dec. 2010 J. Schukraft

slide55

5. Summary

・ Charmed systems are interesting !

・Strange Nucleiv.s. CharmedNuclei

SU(3)fv.s. SU(2)f x SU(2)spin

・ Charmed Nuclei

D-meson Nuclei

・OtherCharmedNuclear Systems

J/ψ-nuclie, Λc-nuclei, Hc-dibaryons, ...

・Experimetal researches

Belle, J-PARC, GSI, RHIC, LHC, ...