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World War I. Factors . Causes Nationalism Territorial disputes Imperialistic rivalries Arms Race Balance of power is shifted Press & public opinion No international agency for arbitration Alliance system . Nationalism . Sense of intense pride for ones culture.

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  • Causes
    • Nationalism
    • Territorial disputes
    • Imperialistic rivalries
    • Arms Race
    • Balance of power is shifted
    • Press & public opinion
    • No international agency for arbitration
    • Alliance system
  • Sense of intense pride for ones culture.
  • New idea becomes powerful for promoting ones culture and interests above.
  • Basic idea of self determination that people who share a national identity and have their own country and government.
  • The southeast area of the Balkans holds the strongest nationalism.
territorial disputes
Territorial disputes
  • In Europe the area of Alsace-Lorraine
    • Between France and Germany
    • Germany took the area in 1871
    • France is determined to get back
imperialistic rivalries
Imperialistic Rivalries
  • A lot of almost wars over imperial states.
  • Conflict in Africa and Asia over imperialist states.
arms race
Arms Race
  • A feeling of military preparedness is the best insurance of peace.
    • Countries build up military to intimidate or threaten other nations
  • Alfred Mahan in naval power
    • His ideas of having powerful navy took hold in Europe
    • Britain has largest navy
    • Germany is racing to catch up
balance of power
Balance of Power
  • Europe has a system of keeping a balance of power.
  • Not letting one nation become to powerful to intimidate others and take over all of Europe
  • Unification of Germany and Italy will start to upset the balance of power in eyes of other countries
  • Yellow Press
    • Sensationalist reporting that exaggerates stories to get attention of readers
    • Spanish American War
      • “Remember the Maine”
  • Yellow press will sway public opinion and pressure governments one way
international agency
International Agency
  • No agency for arbitration
  • Countries settle disputes themselves
    • With military intimidation
    • Or War
alliance system
Alliance System
  • There is secret diplomacy
    • One country will support another by word
  • Full Alliance system
    • Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, and Italy
    • Triple Entente – France, Russia, and Brittan
  • If one country attacks another, everyone goes to war!
  • By the start of the war is at the height of power abroad.
    • Have colonies around the world
    • Largest navy in the world
    • Smallest land army in Europe
  • Oversea
    • Self-government to Canada, Australia, and South Africa
    • Tightened reins on non-white colonies – India
  • Content and Confident by 1914
  • Nationalism has gripped the state from 1870’s
  • Prussia – military state
    • Sought to unite the German states into one nation
    • Fought a series of wars to make the German State
  • Extreme industrial growth
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II
    • Grandson of Queen Victoria
    • Has withered left arm – overcompensates with being a bully and being aggressive
  • Have ample resources to fuel their economy
  • By 1914
    • Economically advanced
    • Aggressive foreign policy
    • Rich, powerful, and aggressive
    • Growing naval power – to try and rival Brittan
  • Republic in Crisis
    • Politics
      • Panama Canal Scandal – bribed public officials to keep project going
      • Dreyfus Affair – Jew was blamed for spying for Germany
      • Army is a state within a state
  • Economy
    • Set backs in Alsace-Lorraine
    • Demoted from 2nd to 4th in world trade
  • By 1914
    • A nation divided
    • Anti-military sentiment – pacifist
  • Economically backwards
    • Lacking in natural resources
    • Growing population
    • Growing labor unrest – riots in streets
  • Illiteracy
    • Population is susceptible to manipulation by state
  • Colonial ventures
    • Ethiopia – lost to Ethiopian army
    • Libya – is only imperialist colony – not very strategic
  • By 1914
    • Is in no condition for war
  • Nicholas II
    • Cousins with Kaiser Wilhelm
    • Is a very inept leader
      • Cannot make a decision
      • Constantly flip-flops
  • Military
    • Has the largest land army
    • One of the smallest navies
  • Technology
    • Is behind – still has mounted Calvary
    • Not industrialized
  • By 1914
    • Has 6,000,000 men available
    • Only has 4,000,000 rifles
    • Oops! In other words not prepared
austria hungary
  • Two separate states
    • Lack of cooperation between Austria and Hungary
    • Emperor Francis Joseph only source of Unity
  • Agrarian society
    • Not advanced economically
  • Military strength
    • Small navy
    • Small army
  • By 1914
    • Large nationalism faction – lack of unity in state
    • Not ready for a war
the event
The Event
  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
    • Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne
    • Serbian nationalist shot him and his wife
  • Austria gives ultimatum to Serbia
    • Let them come in and find who is responsible or else!
    • Serbia politely refuses
  • Germany gives Austria “blank check” support
    • Austria declares war on Serbia
alliance system1
Alliance System
  • Russia mobilizes army to back Serbia
    • Mobilizes against both Austria and Germany border
  • Russia only has plans that can mobilize against both instead of against Austria
    • Nicholas will send Wilhelm apology telegram for mobilizing against him on July 31st
    • Germany will declare against Russia war on August 1st
  • The rest of Alliances will fall into place
german response
German Response
  • Schlieffen Plan
    • Two front war
    • Heart of France is through Belgium
    • Conduct war at enemies expense
      • Fight on their ground not Germany’s
    • Great victories will demoralize enemy
    • Defeat France first – they are weak with no army or navy. At the same time occupy Russia, then bring east troops over to defeat Russia once France is defeated.
  • Germany will declare war on neutral Belgium and plunge through towards France
america declares neutrality
America Declares Neutrality
  • Difficulties in neutrality
    • Large immigrant population, each group will support their cultural ties.
    • Most Americans will side with British and French
      • Cultural ties with British
        • Leading trade partner between America and British
      • France – helped out during Revolutionary War
  • Wilson knew that America was a melting pot of cultures and nations he did not want to see American against one another.
new technologies
New Technologies
  • Search – get into groups
    • Machine Guns
    • Artillery field guns
    • Poison gas
    • Submarines
    • Tanks and armored cars
    • Airplanes
  • Give some stats for each
    • The significance
      • Describe what it is and what it does
      • The effect in battle or during the war
  • Tell me which you think had the greatest impact on the war and why.
1 st battle of the marne
1st Battle of the Marne
  • German army advanced to within 30 miles of Paris
  • French and British troops held Germany near Marne River
  • Sept 6-10 1914 with the German retreat
  • Almost 500,000 casualties total 4 days of fighting
western front
Western Front
  • War will become a War of attrition
    • Trench warfare along with new technologies
    • Warfare strategy does not keep up with technologies
    • Offensive warfare – to charge forward against machine guns and entrenched defensive positions
    • Three year stalemate on western front
battle of somme
Battle of Somme
  • July – November 1916
  • Shelled Germans for 1 full week used over 1 million shells
  • On first day after shelling stopped British charged and lost 20,000 in the first hour! And lost 60,000 the first day.
  • British kept up offensive after offensive and finally won after four months of fighting having 620,000 casualties. Germans had over 500,000 casualties.
  • They had gained about 16 miles of ground.
eastern front
Eastern Front
  • More Flexible
    • Much more movement of the front lines
  • German success
    • German will push Russians back
  • Russia will fold with revolution
    • Sign treaty of Brest-Litovsk
      • Peace between Russia and Germany
      • Gave Germany all Land lost in World War I
    • Russia will be in a Civil War the next 4 years
us involvement
US Involvement
  • Munitions sales
  • Loans to Allies
    • This will begin myth that bankers and munitions drug the US into WW I
  • By 1915 Wilson will prepare for war
    • 1916 Congress passes two acts:
    • National Defense Act – expand size of army
    • Naval Construction Act – build more warships
britain blockade
Britain Blockade
  • Britain, early in the war, started the blockade of Germany.
    • Had largest navy wanted to use it to keep goods from reaching enemy
    • International Law said that a country could confiscate weapons and other war contraband
    • Britain will stop every ship for Germany and take all items.
  • Germany will respond with unrestricted Sub warfare
    • Look at map on page 176
unrestricted sub warfare
Unrestricted Sub Warfare
  • Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 – 128 Americans Dead
    • Lusitania was carrying munitions – American propaganda – said is was passenger ship
      • Begins myth that Americans on belligerent ships drug US into WW I
    • Germans will promise not to sink unarmed passenger ship
  • 1916 sinking of Sussex
    • Germans will promise again to sink unarmed ship
  • 1917 Germany will resume sub warfare
    • Germany will risk war with US
    • Germany wanted to end war before the US gets involved
end of us neutrality
End of US Neutrality
  • Germany became desperate
    • US traded with both allies and central powers
    • British blockade stopped all goods from reaching Germany
    • Germans will increase sub warfare
  • And Send Zimmerman Telegram
    • Look at the document
    • Fill out document worksheet
america enters the war
America Enters the War
  • How did the Allies battle Sub Warfare?
  • Convoy system
      • Merchant ships sailed together with warships
      • Page 191 in book – picture
      • This system stopped U-Boat attacks
      • Clip from History Channel
  • By 1918 Germany launched an offensive on the western front that threatened to break the allies.
    • Germany and Russia sign the Brest-Litovsk treaty
    • Germany can now send all the soldiers from the eastern front to the western front
  • The allies are worn out by 1918.
    • The all out German offensive threatened to break the allies and open up a route to Paris.
america fights
America Fights
  • June 1917 – John Pershing enters France with small group of forces.
  • Larger amount of American troops came in 1918.
    • At the same time German offensive begins to stall.
    • Food and supplies are stretched thin
  • What kind of effect would American soldiers have on the war?
    • Brought an energy to fighting – not having been in war for 3 years previous
    • Other countries were had been fighting for almost 4 years and were worn out.
end of the war
End of the War
  • With the combined efforts of France, Britain, Italy (who changed sides), and United States
    • They will push Germans and Austria back
  • Germany knew it was near the end would surrender
    • Military will give up power of state to let other officials take the humiliation of surrender
    • This will later spur Hitler to take power – blaming the government for German failure
    • Germany will not fight on German soil or loose German ground – all fighting took place outside of Germany
cost of the war
Cost of the War
  • Involved 65 Million men in uniform
  • 29 million wounded
  • 8.5 million dead
    • Page 193 graph
  • Cost $200 billion
  • 1 Million civilian deaths
fourteen points
Fourteen points
  • No secret treaties
  • Freedom of seas
  • Reduction of arms
  • Self-determination for all people
  • League of Nations
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Big four
    • France, England, US, and Italy
    • No Germans involved in peace talks
  • Self-Determination
    • New countries: Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Czech, Yugoslavia (page 195)
  • Mandate System
    • Divide German colonies up, gave them to England and France. (page 195)
    • They were Suppose to lead them to self-government – under League of Nations
  • Reparations - $32 Billion
    • German owed under the “War Guilt Clause”
    • Gave up all Territory gained in West and East.
league of nations
League of Nations
  • System of Collective Security
    • To prevent war
    • Disarmament
      • Arms decline
  • Settle disputes by negotiation and arbitration
  • Depended on Big Four or Great Powers
    • England, France, America, and Germany
      • America and Germany will not be able to help
      • Germany will not have economy
      • America will not ratify League of Nations or Treaty of Versailles
trouble at home
Trouble at Home
  • Senate would not ratify the League of nations
    • Did not like that the League could declare war without the consent of the Senate.
  • Germans-Americans did like the “War-Guilt” clause
    • Blamed Germany for the war
  • Senate would reject Treaty of Versailles
    • Wilson would not compromise – voted it down