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Skin: The Integumentary System. Chapter 12. Skin Trivia. 21 Square Feet 4 Kilograms/9 pounds, 7% - 15% of Total Body Weight Complex Combination of Tissues Continuous Layer. 20 Blood Vessels 65 Hairs & Hair Muscles 78 Nerves 78 Sensors for Heat 13 Sensors for Cold

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skin trivia
Skin Trivia
  • 21 Square Feet
  • 4 Kilograms/9 pounds, 7% - 15% of Total Body Weight
  • Complex Combination of Tissues
  • Continuous Layer
one square inch contains
20 Blood Vessels

65 Hairs & Hair Muscles

78 Nerves

78 Sensors for Heat

13 Sensors for Cold

160 Sensors for Pressure

100 Sebaceous/Oil Glands

1300 Nerve Endings

19,500,000 Cells

0.5 Million Cells Dying & Being Replaced

One Square Inch Contains
functions
Functions
  • Waterproofs the body & prevents fluid loss
  • Unbroken skin plays important roles in the immune system
  • Major receptor for the sense of touch
  • Helps the body synthesize vitamin D from the sun’s ultraviolet light, while screening out harmful ultraviolet radiation
functions of related structures
Functions of Related Structures
  • Sebaceous glands, or oil glands, secrete sebum, which lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin
  • Sweat glands help regulate body temperature and water content. Also a small amount of metabolic waste is excreted through the sweat glands
  • Hair helps control the loss of body heat
  • Nails protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger
slide8
Skin
  • Made up of 3 layers or strata
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous layer
epidermis
Epidermis
  • Epithelial tissues form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
  • Epidermis is made of several specialized epithelial tissues
    • Squamous epithelial tissue is the outer most layer
      • Made of flat, scaly cells that are continuously sloughed off
    • Basal layer is where cells are produced
epidermis1
Epidermis
    • This layer does not contain any blood vessels or connective tissue & is dependent on lower layers for nourishment.
    • Keratin is a fibrous, water-repellent protein
  • Melanocytes produce melanin and are found in the basal cell layer
    • Melanin
      • The black pigment that determines skin color
      • protects the skin against some of the UV rays
dermis
Dermis
  • Also known as the corium
  • Thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis
  • Contains;
    • Connective tissue
    • Blood & lymph vessels
    • Nerve fibers
    • Fair follicles
    • Sebaceous & sweat glands
dermis1
Dermis
  • Tactile
    • Pertaining to touch
  • Perception
    • is the ability to recognize sensory stimulus
dermis2
Dermis
  • Collagen
    • Tough fibrous protein material
  • Mast cells
    • Found in the connective tissue
    • Respond to injury or infection by producing
      • Heparin
        • Released in response to injury
      • Histamine
        • Released in response to allergens
subcutaneous layer
Subcutaneous Layer
  • Located just below the skin, connects the skin to the surface muscles
  • Made up of loose connective tissue & fatty adipose tissue
  • Cellulite is a nontechnical term for the subcutaneous deposit of fat
  • Lipocytes, or fat cells, are predominant in the subcutaneous layer
sebaceous glands
Sebaceous glands
  • Located in the dermis
  • Closely associated with hair follicles
  • Secrete sebum which is an oil
  • Mammary glands are modified sebaceous glands
sweat glands
Sweat Glands
  • Tiny, coiled glands
  • Most numerous in the
    • Palms of the hands
    • Soles of the feet
    • Forehead
    • Armpits
  • Hidrosis means the productions and excretions of sweat
slide18
Hair
  • Hair follicles
    • Sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers
  • Arrectorpili
    • Aka erector muscles
    • Tiny muscle fibers attached to the fair follicles
    • Cause hair to stand erect in response to cold or fright
nails aka unguis
Nails aka unguis
  • Nail body
  • Nail bed
  • Free edge
  • Cuticle
    • Narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root
  • Lunula-pale, half-moon-shaped region at the nail root
  • Root
medical specialties
Medical Specialties
  • Dermatologist
    • Specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of the skin
  • Cosmetic surgeon
    • Aka plastic surgeon
    • Specializes in the surgical restoration & reconstruction of body structures