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A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally. Such areas may also be covered partially or completely by shallow pools of water. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, and bogs, among others. The water found in wetlands can be saltwater, freshwater, or brackish. The world's largest wetland is the Pantanal which straddles Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America.
Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems. Plant life found in wetlands includes mangrove, water lillies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, black spruce, cypress, gum, and many others. Animal life includes different amphibians, reptiles, birds, inssects, and mammals.
The UK, Iraq, South Africa, and the US, wetlands discussed frequently for conservation.
Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics.[
In Sweden, there is the most extensive inventory in the world (VMI). VMI has studied the wetlands in Sweden for a period of 25 years. Over 35,000 objects were studied. The area studied was 10% of Sweden. They also investigated the area for human activities. This was used as information to the authorities to prevent draining of the wiki.