Observational Cosmology. Jonathan P. Gardner NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Gary Hinshaw, WMAP Co-I. University of Edinburgh, September 3, 2004. Hubble Space Telescope. James Webb Space Telescope. Astronomical Search For Origins. First Galaxies.
Gary Hinshaw, WMAP Co-I
University of Edinburgh, September 3, 2004
David Jonathan Gardner, June 16, 2005
David Jonathan Gardner, June 16, 1998
... So Are Changes(Evolution)
Dark Matter/Dark Energy
Planets, Life & Intelligence
Atoms & Radiation:CMB
400 million years
1 billion years
7 billion years
13.7 billion years
Edwin P. Hubble, 1889-1953
Which is further away?How can you tell?
Cepheid Variable Stars: known period-luminosity relation.
Astronomers can measure distances if they know the intrinsic luminosity.
Suitable for nearby galaxies
Supernovae: known maximum luminosity. Suitable for distant galaxies.
Cepheids in the Andromeda galaxy showed it is 8 times further than the most distant star in our Galaxy.
Hubble at Mount Wilson telescope
“Planetary Nebula” are within our Galaxy.
Velocity in Kilometers per Second
Far, Far Away means Long, Long Ago
Distance + Light travel time = Seeing the past.
1 Billion light years away
1 Billion years ago
1 Million light years away,
1 Million years ago
Here & Now
Why is the cosmic microwave background
temperature so uniform on scales >2°?
+ O (10
D >> c/H
q >> 2
Why is the universe anywhere close to W =1 now?
W =1 is an unstable stationary point.
Density 1ns after BB
Scale Factor a(t)
Flat, or Euclidean Space
Negative Hyperbolic Space
Positive Spherical Space
3D Figures by Stuart Levy of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and by Tamara Munzer of Stanford University for Scientific American. 2D Figures by Ned Wright, UCLA
of galaxies -
how did this happen?
Later, the regions re-enter the horizon.Quantum fluctuations become galaxies
Before Inflationcausally connected quantum fluctuations.
After Inflation,previously connected regions are outside the horizon.
Predictions: Universe is flat. Fluctuations are correlated on different scales.
Wayne Hu and Martin White, Scientific American, February 2004
Gravity tries to
make matter fall
into potential wells
Imprint of event
imparted on photons...
Cooling with atoms
Cooling with H2
Barkana & Loeb 2001, Physics Reports, 349, 125
Hubble Ultra Deep Field
Bouwens et al. 2005, astro-ph/0509641
Photographic & electronic detection
Big Telescopes with Sensitive Detectors in Space
Sensitivity Improvement over the Eye
Mount Wilson 100”
Mount Palomar 200”
Slow f ratios
Adapted from Cosmic Discovery, M. Harwit
Year of observations
-225° Celsius,-370° Fahrenheit
How will JWST get there?
375 miles up
Second Lagrange Point,1,000,000 miles away
How do you put a 6.5 meter mirror in a 5 meter rocket?
2.4 meter diameter
6.5 meter diameter
M81 by Spitzer
In other words: