Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Arab Socialist Union. Kellen Irby. Outline. Rise to Power Formation of Single Party State Successes Using Foreign Policy Failures Treatment of Opposition Legacy. Rise to Power. B orn in Alexandria in January 1918
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Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Arab Socialist Union Kellen Irby
Outline • Rise to Power • Formation of Single Party State • Successes • Using Foreign Policy • Failures • Treatment of Opposition • Legacy
Rise to Power • Born in Alexandria in January 1918 • In 1938, graduated from the Royal Military Academy and joined the Egyptian Army • Fought in the Arab-Israeli War in 1948 • Organized a revolt against the Royal Family in 1952 overthrowing the king bloodlessly • Became deputy of General Neguib, who resigned in 1954 and was succeeded by Nasser
Formation of Single-party State • New regime replaced monarchy with single party state(Arab Socialist Republic) • State based on new political elite of military leaders and middle class bureaucrats • Began to make reforms based on Arab Socialism, which was based more on anti-colonialism than class struggle
Successes • Nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956 • Established the United Arab Republic in 1958 • Completed the Aswan High Dam in 1970
Foreign Policy • Nasser effectively used foreign policy to bolster dictatorial rule • Expelled British imperialists from Egypt • Switched loyalty to USSR when US would not fund Aswan Dam • Lead the Pan-Arab Movement • These bold moves gave Egyptians a sense of pride and place in the modern world
Failures • United Arab Republic ended in 1961 when Syrian army units staged a coup • “Egypt’s Vietnam” • Sent a small force to Yemen in support of the anti-Royalist Free Yemen Movement • By the end of the expedition there were 50,000 Egyptian troops in Yemen and victory was not achieved • Oppression of Muslim Brotherhood caused long term social problems
Treatment of Opposition • Muslim Brotherhood opposed Nasser because he sought secular solutions to social problems • The Muslim Brotherhood was outlawed by Nasser and many members were imprisoned • Muslim Brotherhood remained organized, with meetings occurring within the prisons • Nasser also kept any other parties from forming
Legacy Nasser’s foreign policy achievements did not compensate for his failure to better the lives of the Egyptian people. By suppressing the opposition so harshly, no real alternative to the Muslim Brotherhood emerged after the eventual fall of a successor dictatorship in Egypt in 2011. After Egypt’s first democratic election the Muslim Brotherhood now rules Egypt and is putting into place much of the totalitarian policies started by Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Works Cited • http://www.mideastweb.org/Middle-East-Encyclopedia/gamal_abdel_nasser.htm • http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/gamal_abdel_nasser.htm • http://www.netplaces.com/understanding-socialism/chapter-18/nassers-egypt.htm • http://enctclopedia.com/topic/United_Arab_Republic.aspx