Rise of the Cotton Kingdom. Upper South. Maryland, Virginia, and N. Carolina Produced tobacco, hemp, wheat, and vegetables. Deep South. Georgia, S. Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Rice, Sugarcane, and Cotton (depended upon cotton) Slavery very prominent
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Upper South • Maryland, Virginia, and N. Carolina • Produced tobacco, hemp, wheat, and vegetables
Deep South • Georgia, S. Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas • Rice, Sugarcane, and Cotton (depended upon cotton) • Slavery very prominent • Cotton Gin 1793 Eli Whitney
Industry in the South • Prospered 1820-1860 • Less manufacturing than the North • Barriers • Lack of money or capital • Large portion of population consisted of Slaves
Southern Transportation • Railroads but less than north, were local, problem during Civil War • Natural Waterways
The South’s People • Small Farms and Rural Poor • Majority of the South’s farmers • Yeomens—did not own slaves • Tenant Farmers – rented land, paid with goods or money
Plantations • Wealthy land owners • Several thousand acres • Very few, measured wealth by number of slaves • Fewer than 4% had more than 20 slaves
Plantation Owners • Fixed Costs – regular costs to run the plantation • Credit—form of loan • Many were in debt • Wives • In charge of watching over enslaved workers • Difficult lonely life • Domestic Slaves – house work • Blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, or weavers…small towns..
Slavery • Family Life • No protection for families • Extended family (important)
Slave codes • Laws for enslaved people • Cannot teach to read or write • Cannot assemble in large groups
Escaping Slavery • Underground railroad • Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglas (abolitionists)
Underground Railroad • Network of routes to the North • “Follow the Drinking Gourd” • Hide in houses, barns, under wagons • Opposition in the North • Many whites still disliked the idea • South • Said they treated slaves well • Gave them food, clothes, living quarters