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International Success Stories in Wastewater Treatment and Reuse. MEDAWARE. Outline. Introduction: Benefits and Domains of Wastewater Reuse Success Stories in Mediterranean Region: Spain: Vitoria and Tenerife Plants Greece: Chalkis Island Plant Italy: Catania Projects

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Presentation Transcript
  • Introduction: Benefits and Domains of Wastewater Reuse
  • Success Stories in Mediterranean Region:
    • Spain: Vitoria and Tenerife Plants
    • Greece: Chalkis Island Plant
    • Italy: Catania Projects
    • Palestine: Dan Region Project
    • Cyprus: Larnaca Plant
    • Other Examples
  • Success Stories all over the World:
    • Australia: Bolivar Project
    • USA: Monterey, California
  • Best Practices and Success Stories in Wastewater Treatment Systems are:
    • Systems employing an effective treatment technology leading to a good quality effluent
    • Systems with high contribution into the overall increase of wastewater reuse in the relevant country
    • Systems achieving sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse practices
benefits of wastewater reuse
Benefits of Wastewater Reuse
  • Potential benefits of wastewater reuse are most obvious for the arid areas but the general increasing pressures on water resources all over the world is also making wastewater reuse attractive in other areas.

All these benefits contribute to the ultimate objective of sustainable use of water resources

the mediterranean region the need for wastewater reuse
The Mediterranean Region: The Need for Wastewater Reuse
  • It is characterised by the low level and irregularity of water resources, through time (summer drought, interannual droughts) and space (dry in the South).
  • It includes 60% of the world population with renewable natural resources of less than 1,000 m3 of water/inhabitant/year.
  • The strong growth in urbanisation, tourism, irrigation and population can only increase tensions on water demand.
objectives of the reuse scheme
Objectives of the Reuse Scheme
  • A Tertiary Treatment Station was added in 1995 to the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant to obtain a better effluent capable of:
    • Increasing water supply to Vitoria and Bilbao cities
    • Replacing ecological flows to the Zadorra dams when they are deficient
    • Irrigating 10,000 ha of agricultural land
    • Protecting the trout fish of the Zadorra River
the treatment technology
The Treatment Technology

Secondary treatment (screening, sedimentation, nitrification-denitrification) + tertiary treatment (coagulation-flocculation, sand filters, chlorine disinfection)


Settling Ponds

Flocculation Chambers

Sand Filter

Filling up

Sand Filter Washing

Filtered Water


Mixing Pumps

Chlorination Chamber

effluent reuse
Effluent Reuse
  • The Plant will generate 20,000,000 m3/year of treated effluent:
    • 8,000,000 m3/year will be used for irrigation without cultivations restriction
    • 12,000,000 m3/year will be added to the Zadorra River ecological flow
  • The effluent is suitable for drinking water supply!! (illegal at present)
  • Cost: 0.06 €/m3

Treated Effluent

Treated Effluent



plant general characteristics
Plant General Characteristics
  • Constructed between 1995 and 1997 to alleviate the water shortage of the island of Tenerife
  • Designed for a flow of 90,000 m3/d
  • Effluent is used to irrigate a crop area located 70 km away from the Plant



the wastewater reuse system
The Wastewater Reuse System

61 km; 0.6 km diameter Gravity Pipe completely filled

50,000 m³; 10 m deep

15.000 m3

6.7 km

457,000 m³; 20 m deep

250,000 m³; 15 m deep

Activated Sludge


Aeration Tanks


Grit Removal

Activated Sludge Tanks


San Isidro Reservoir

Gravity Pipe

El Saltadero Reservoir

San Lorenzo Reservoir

problem and solution
Problem and Solution
  • Anaerobic conditions build-up in the long pipe that transports the effluent leading to sulphide generation
  • Fresh water over-saturated with DO started to be injected at 10 km from the pipe inlet  nitrification-denitrification process  anoxic conditions  inhibition of sulphide generation  reduction in NH3-N  less chlorine requirement for disinfection
effluent reuse29
Effluent Reuse
  • Reuse of 7,000,000 m3/year of treated effluent
  • Irrigation of 775 ha of banana mainly, plus potatoes and tomatoes
  • Acceptable quality, and studies are ongoing for its improvement using micro and ultra filtration
  • Cost: 0.45 €/m3
plant general characteristics31
Plant General Characteristics
  • Constructed in 1994
  • Reclamation of wastewater started in 1998
  • Daily flow of 9,000 m3/day
disinfection process
Disinfection Process
  • In 1998, ultraviolet disinfection using two types of UV systems (closed and open type) and chlorination was introduced
  • The first UV bank produced 55 mWs/cm2. After test, it was decided to increase the total dose of the UV lamps to 120 mWs/cm2
effluent reuse36
Effluent Reuse



  • Reuse of 4000 m3/day of treated effluent for landscape irrigation (280 ha with 100,000 trees and bushes) and industrial use
projects characteristics

Developed in 2001

Flow: 1,500 m3/d

Activated Sludge + Chlorine Contact Tank + Tank Storage

Quality: BOD5 < 10 mg/l; COD < 30 mg/l

Reused for irrigating orange, olive trees, crops for caning industry, and vegetables to be eaten cooked

Cost: 0.11 €/m3


Developed in 2001

Flow: 5,200 m3/d

Activated Sludge + Sand Filtration + Reservoir Storage

Quality: BOD5 < 10 mg/l; COD < 30 mg/l

Reused for irrigating orange, olive trees, crops for caning industry, and vegetables to be eaten cooked

Cost: 0.11 €/m3

Projects Characteristics
plant and effluent characteristics
Plant and Effluent Characteristics
  • Constructed in 1991-1994
  • Flow of 120,000,000 m3/yr
treatment technology41

Effluent of biological treatment including nutrient removal is spread on sand basins and thus recharged into the groundwater aquifer for additional polishing and long-term storage

Treatment Technology
effluent reuse43
Effluent Reuse
  • In 1993, 75 out of 87 Mm3 of treated wastewater was recharged and about 100 Mm3 (together with groundwater) was used for agricultural irrigation in Negev of an area of ~ 16,000 ha of field-crops (cotton, cereals, sunflower, etc.), fruit plantations, vegetables, and flowers aimed for export
  • Cost: 0,45 US$/m3
plant general characteristics45
Plant General Characteristics
  • Located behind the International Airport of Cyprus
  • Operation started in 1995, and reuse for irrigation purposes in 2000
  • Design capacity: 8,500 m3/d; In summer: 5,500 m3/d and in winter: 4,500 m3/d

Sand Filtration Unit

Irrigation Pumping Station

Filter Press

Sludge Drying Beds

effluent reuse49
Effluent Reuse
  • Irrigation of 150 ha of corn and alfalfa at Dromolaxia Village; these started to grow noticeably fast
  • Irrigation, during the summer season, of gardens, parks and fields owned by hotels, the International Airport and Larnaca Municipality
  • Cost: 0.5 €/m3
plant characteristics
Plant Characteristics
  • Developed in 1999-2002
  • Flow: 150,000 m3/day
  • Treats urban and industrial wastewater
  • Serves Adelaide and Gawler-Elizabeth-Salisbury regions in South Australia

Tanks and Lagoons

Tertiary Treatment Plant

treatment technology55
Treatment Technology

Screening and Grit Removal

Pre-Aeration Tanks

Primary Sedimentation

Activated Sludge

Dissolved Air Flotation Filtration

Chlorine Disinfection

Oxidation Ponds

Settlement Tanks

Aquifer Storage & Recovery

Sludge Stabilization Ponds


Pre-Aeration Tanks

effluent quality57
Effluent Quality

Achievement of quality required for non-restricted irrigation!

effluent reuse58
Effluent Reuse
  • Irrigation of 3,500 ha of vegetables across the Northern Adelaide Plains through Virginia Pipeline Scheme (see Green area on photo)
  • Watering of plant lawns and gardens
  • Cleaning and flushing of equipment inside the plant
  • Cost: Construction 53 Million AU$ and Operation 0.12 AU$/m3
wastewater reuse in california
Wastewater Reuse in California
  • Wastewater reuse has been practiced since 1890
  • Historically, agricultural reuse has been practiced
  • Over the last decade landscape irrigation in urban areas and groundwater recharge have been increasingly practiced
monterey wastewater reclamation study for agriculture 1980
Monterey Wastewater Reclamation Study for Agriculture (1980)
  • A pilot tertiary reclamation plant (employing two parallel tertiary treatment units) was added to Castroville 1500 m3/day-WWTP
  • Dechlorination of final effluent was practiced till 1983 and was stopped afterwards
  • The objective is to study full-scale farm practices using reclaimed municipal wastewater
pilot study details
Pilot Study Details
  • Two 5-ha experimental plots were used in the lower Salinas Valley:
    • On one plot, artichokes were grown
    • On the other, a succession of broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce and celery
  • The plots were intended to provide data on crop response to two variables:
    • Irrigation water type (T22 effluent, FE effluent, well water)
    • Fertilization rate (33%, 66%, 100%)
pilot study results treated effluent quality
Pilot Study Results: Treated Effluent Quality
  • Salinity in the reclaimed effluents was a bit high, but not so high as to cause soil permeability problems
  • Coliform levels of reclaimed effluents met the most stringent of the California Wastewater Reclamation Criteria
  • The reclaimed effluents had levels of heavy metals an order of magnitude lower than the metal input from impurities in commercial fertilizers
pilot study results plant tissues
Pilot Study Results: Plant Tissues
  • Analysis of plant edible tissues showed that there was no difference, between plants irrigated with reclaimed effluents and plants irrigated with well water, in the level of:
    • Heavy metals
    • Total and Faecal Coliforms
pilot study results crop yield
Pilot Study Results: Crop Yield
  • Celery and broccoli crops gave higher yield with the reclaimed effluent irrigation
  • Yields of lettuce and celery showed interaction of water type and fertilization: reclaimed wastewater irrigation improved yields in unfertilized plots but had little effect on plots receiving fertilizers
  • Artichoke yields were similar with all three irrigation water types
  • Reductions of up to 33% of fertilizer application were possible when reclaimed wastewater is used
other pilot study results
Other Pilot Study Results
  • No leaf damage due to residual chlorine (that’s why dechlorination practice was stopped in 1983)
  • No difference in plant appearance for all 3 types of irrigation water
  • Cold storage tests showed no unexpected deterioration of produce
  • The shelf life of produce irrigated with reclaimed wastewater was sometimes superior to that irrigated with well water
  • No adverse impacts in terms of soil or groundwater quality degradation
  • No health problems with project personnel
monterey regional wastewater treatment and recycling plant
Monterey Regional Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Plant
  • In 1992-1997, Monterey Regional Water Pollution Agency and Monterey County Water Resources Agency developed two projects:
    • A Water Recycling Facility at the Regional Treatment Plant
    • A distribution system including 45 miles of pipeline and 22 supplemental wells
    • The Plant employs the Title 22 (T22) treatment technology
effluent reuse70
Effluent Reuse
  • The project produced 8,000 m3/day of reclaimed wastewater distributed to farmlands in the Northern Salinas Valley for food crops irrigation
  • Technicians perform frequent water quality tests to monitor the system
  • During rainy season, excess water is safely discharged 2 miles away in the Monterey Bay

Maintenance of Digester

Cogeneration Facility

Secondary Clarifier

Chlorine Contact Basin