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“Pericles’ Funeral Oration”
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  1. “Pericles’ Funeral Oration” By Thucydides 460 B.C.-404 B.C. Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  2. Oration • A formal speech intended to inspire its listeners and incite them to action • Appeals to the audience’s religious, moral, or patriotic emotions. Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  3. the opening, intended to capture the audience’s attention the narration, a recital of facts the exposition, or definition, of terms to be explained and issues to be proved the proposition to clarify the points and state exactly what is to be proved a confirmation to address the arguments for and against the proposition the confutation, or refutation, to refute the opposing arguments the conclusion, or epilogue, to summarize the arguments and stir the audience OrationSeven Identifiable Parts Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  4. Examples of Rhetoric Paragraph One (page 6) • Elimination of hyperbole • everything he says will be the truth • he will not fall victim to over-praising the dead, as is often the case with funerals • Result • adds legitimacy to his words Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  5. Paragraph Two (page 7) • Recognition of ancestors • Responsible for handing down a free state • Each generation is responsible for improving the state Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  6. Paragraph Four (page 7) • Discussion of their system of government • Does not copy other forms of government • Other people copy their system • Ability is more important than status Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  7. Paragraph Four (page 7) • Discussion of their system of government (cont.) • People can rise out of poverty by helping the state • “We are free and tolerant in our private lives; but in public affairs we keep to the law.” • Basically defines the state and its citizens as perfect Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  8. Paragraph Seven (pages 7-8) • Difference between Athens and its opponents • Centered around military security • Athens is open to the public • Rely on real courage and loyalty, not secret weapons Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  9. Paragraph Seven (pages 7-8) • Difference between Athens and its opponents (cont.) • Spartans train their young to be brave; Athenians are born brave. • Spartans invade along side their allies; Athenians fight by themselves and often prevail • if Athens loses, it is because the Army is fighting in multiple places • creates an excuse for any loss Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  10. Paragraph Eight (page 8) • Athenians use both mind and body; others use one or the other Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  11. Paragraph Nine (pages 8-9) • Creation of allies • “We make friends by doing good to others, not by receiving good from them.” Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  12. Paragraph Ten (page 9) • Focus now changes from the state to the current citizens’ responsibilities • First half of speech was designed to define the greatness of Athens Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  13. Paragraph Ten (page 9) • These soldiers died to protect this greatness, and it is now survivors’ responsibility to undergo hardships in her service. • Citizens of Athens have more at stake because Athens is better than other states • The city is great because of its citizens Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  14. Paragraph Eleven (page 9) • Defines the men who died • “shows us the meaning of manliness in its first revelation and in its final proof.” • Some had their faults (elimination of hyperbole) but their “gallant conduct against the enemy in defense of their native land” takes priority Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  15. Paragraph Eleven (page 9) • Defines the men who died (cont.) • “They have blotted out evil with good, and done more service to the commonwealth than they ever did harm in their private lives.” • They fought and put success or failure in the hands of fate Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  16. Paragraph Twelve (pages 9-10) • Survivors should “fix your eyes every day on the greatness of Athens as she really is, and should fall in love with her.” • The soldiers gave their lives and will be praised forever. • “Happiness depends on being free, and freedom depends on being courageous.” Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  17. Paragraphs 13, 14 & 15(page 10) • Addresses the relatives of the fallen soldiers • Parents who lost a son • He will not show grief or sorrow for them • The death of their son is good fortune (to die honorably) • Have more children so they can die for the state as well Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  18. Paragraphs 13, 14 & 15 (page 10) • Addresses the relatives of the fallen soldiers • Sons or brothers of the dead • You have a tough road ahead of you because your fathers/brothers died in battle • The only way to equal them is to die in battle as well Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"

  19. Paragraphs 13, 14 & 15 (page 10) • Addresses the relatives of the fallen soldiers • Wives of soldiers • “the greatest glory of a woman is to be least talked about by men, whether they are praising you or criticizing you.” • Doesn’t say much to the women • ????? Geschke/English IV "Pericles' Funeral Oration"