the things i learned n.
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The Things I Learned. By: Efren fuertes. The Scientific Method. The Scientific method was the first thing we learned. The first step is observation. It talks about the organization of all testing things. The 2 nd step is research question. It has to be testable.

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the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • The Scientific method was the first thing we learned.
  • The first step is observation. It talks about the organization of all testing things.
  • The 2nd step is research question. It has to be testable.
  • 3rd step is Collecting variables. There are 3 of them. Independent variable, dependent variable, and constant variable.
  • 4th step is hypothesis. It is an educated guess.
  • 5th step is procedure. It is the steps you used in the experiment.
  • 6th step is analyze data. It shows the graphs you used.
  • 7th step is conclusion. It talks about if your hypothesis is correct or wrong.
  • Matter has mass and takes up space.
  • Ex: wall, shoe, mouse
physical chemical changes
Physical/Chemical Changes
  • Physical change is the way you change the look of something.
  • Chemical change makes a new substance.
  • Phy: crumpled paper.
  • Che: burning wood.
states of matter
States of Matter
  • The three states of matter is solid, liquid, and gas.
  • Particle arrangement
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
5 phase changes
5 Phase changes
  • Melting point-ice – water
  • Boiling point-water – steam
  • Freezing point- water- ice
  • Condensation- heat- sweat
  • Sublimation-dry ice- steam
mixtures elements and compounds
Mixtures Elements and compounds
  • Compounds: when 2 elements make a new element.
  • Mixtures: when 2 substances make a new substance.
  • Element: pure substance.
homogeneous heterogeneous
  • Homogeneous: can’t see the particles.
  • Heterogeneous: can see the particles.
  • Ex: Kool Aid
  • trail mix
pe ke
  • Potential energy: stored energy
  • Kinetic energy: energy of movement.
  • Ex: about to kick a ball.
  • Diving for a ball.


  • There are three types of atoms.
  • 1. Protons: +
  • 2.Electrons -
  • 3.Neutrons +-
periodic table
Periodic table
  • Demister Mendeleev made the periodic table.
  • There are 18 groups and 7 periods.
  • The 4 parts of the periodic table is metals, transitional metals, non-metals, and gases.
  • Ex: gold, silver, copper, and carbon.
the 3 types of heat
The 3 types of heat
  • 1. Conduction: Movement of heat by touch.
  • 2. Convention: heat passes through a liquid.
  • 3. Radiation: heat being pass in the air.
  • Ex: Touching a hot stove.
  • Touching hot water.
  • Heat wave.
  • The rate of motion( how fast)
  • Ex: Speeding up the road.
  • Increase of speed.
  • Ex: The car is accelerating.
forces and motion
Forces and Motion
  • Motion: anytime an object changes position.
  • Force: anything that would change the movement of an object.
  • Ex: Push a car.
resistance and gravity
Resistance and Gravity
  • Resistance: slows something down.
  • Gravity: the force that pulls you down to earth.
  • Ex: running on sand.
  • Rain
balanced and unbalanced
Balanced and Unbalanced
  • Balanced: all the forces acting in one object.
  • Unbalanced: when one force is acting upon an object.
  • Ex: Bal: table

Unb: see saw

friction and net forces
Friction and Net forces
  • Friction: when 2 substances rub each other.
  • Net forces: the sum of all forces.
  • Ex: Rubbing your hands.
newton s 1 st law
Newton’s 1st Law
  • Same thing as Inertia.
  • An object would be at rest unless you put force.
  • Ex: A ball would be in the air until someone catches it.
newton s 2 nd law
Newton’s 2nd Law
  • The more mass an object has, the more force to move it.
  • Ex: What needs more force, a pebble or a pencil.
newton s 3 rd law
Newton’s 3rd law
  • For every action there is an equal or opposite amount of force.
  • Ex: Leaning on a wall.
  • How hard it is to stop something.
  • Ex: Stopping a car with your hands.
  • Anytime you move something apply a force and that force moves it.
  • Ex: Pushing a car.
  • Amount of work we could do in a period of time.
  • Ex: Weights
  • A wave is a disturbance of energy that passes through matter that moves one place to another.
  • Ex: Flag
mechanical waves
Mechanical waves
  • Need a medium to travel.
  • A medium is matter that allows waves pass through it.
  • Ex: Tornado.
2 types of waves
2 Types of waves
  • Longitudinal: Up and down
  • Transverse: Back and forth
  • Ex: Long: Telephone wire.

Trans: Bell

electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves
  • Do not need a medium.
  • 7 electromagnetic waves:
  • Radio wave- oldest wave
  • Microwave- ex: cell phones
  • Infrared wave- senses body heat
  • Visible light- anything we could see.
  • Ultra violet rays-ex: sun, tanning beds
  • X-rays – see your bones
  • Gamma rays-identify organs./fastest
reflection refraction diffraction
Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction
  • Reflection- waves would bounce off objects.
  • Refraction- Wave speed will vary based on the medium it is passing through.
  • Diffraction- When waves go around, through, or between.
  • Ex: pool

air, water, bottom of sea

waves going through holes.

constructive and destructive interference
Constructive and destructive interference
  • Constructive: when 2 similar waves come together and they make a big wave.
  • Destructive: when 2 opposite waves cancel each other.
sound in different mediums
Sound in different mediums
  • Solid- slower
  • Liquid-quicker
  • Gas- quickest

Effect of temp on sound

  • Hot: the waves would move really quick, because the particles move fast.
  • Cold: the particles are real heavy and is slower.
  • Google pictures