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第六章 标准英语写作 提要 :本章主要是帮助学生了解英汉的差异,明白自己在写英文时受 PowerPoint Presentation
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第六章 标准英语写作 提要 :本章主要是帮助学生了解英汉的差异,明白自己在写英文时受到汉语哪些干扰,从提高单句的写作能力着手,消灭各种类型的基本错误,从而提高整体的写作能力。 1. 标点错误 2. 用词混淆 3. 搭配问题 4. 漏词 5. 累赘 6. 不一致 7. 不平衡 8. 错位 9. 垂悬 10. 应用定语从句时易犯的错误.

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第六章 标准英语写作

提要:本章主要是帮助学生了解英汉的差异,明白自己在写英文时受到汉语哪些干扰,从提高单句的写作能力着手,消灭各种类型的基本错误,从而提高整体的写作能力。

1. 标点错误

2. 用词混淆

3. 搭配问题

4. 漏词

5. 累赘

6. 不一致

7. 不平衡

8. 错位

9. 垂悬

10. 应用定语从句时易犯的错误

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虽然通过中学或大学的英语训练,但是许多人写出的文章错误百出,其中包括基本的拼写、用词、时态、句子结构等方面的错误。这些错误的产生主要是因为受到母语的干扰。许多学生不知道英文和中文究竟有什么差别,所以写出来的英文往往是中文式的。本章主要是帮助学生了解英汉的差异,明白自己在写英文时受到汉语哪些干扰,从而消灭各种类型的基本错误。 虽然通过中学或大学的英语训练,但是许多人写出的文章错误百出,其中包括基本的拼写、用词、时态、句子结构等方面的错误。这些错误的产生主要是因为受到母语的干扰。许多学生不知道英文和中文究竟有什么差别,所以写出来的英文往往是中文式的。本章主要是帮助学生了解英汉的差异,明白自己在写英文时受到汉语哪些干扰,从而消灭各种类型的基本错误。

  • 实践表明,多数学生在写作上的主要欠缺不是系统的写作理论和方法,而是最基本的单句写作能力。文章无论长短,都是由句子组成的,句子是表达思想的最基本的单位。因此,句子是否能写得正确、达意和清楚,将直接影响整篇文章的写作质量。要提高写作的能力,必须从提高单句的写作能力着手。
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6.1 标点错误

  • 英语属印欧语系,汉语属汉藏语系
  • 英语结构紧凑,汉语结构松散。语言学家以“竹节句法”来比喻英语句子,即英语句子是由必不可少的各种连接词衔接而成,宛如节节相连的竹子;而汉语句子则被比喻为“流水句法”,所谓的流水指少用乃至不用连接词仍行文流畅。
  • 英语是形合的,而汉语是意合的,这是中文和英文的最大区别。英语句子中如果少了连接词,如or,but,if,so,because,when,although,in order that,so that等等,所要表达的意思就会支离破碎,而汉语有时即便没有连接词,只从句子本身的意思也可以把概念或关系表达清楚。
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例如,中文可以说“一个英国人,不会说中国话,有一次在中国旅行”。例如,中文可以说“一个英国人,不会说中国话,有一次在中国旅行”。

而英文要说“An English man who could not speak Chinese was once traveling in China.”

又比如:“他笑了,我哭了”。英文不能说“He laughed, I cried.”而要说“He laughed, but I cried.”

这个例子是典型的标点错误,英语语法家称之为comma splices(接合),翻译成中文就是“串句”。下面我们通过一些练习来提高英文标点符号的使用能力。

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(1)采用多种方法,例如增加and或but,使用主从句、分词短语、不定式等改正下面的串句。(1)采用多种方法,例如增加and或but,使用主从句、分词短语、不定式等改正下面的串句。

a.  考试推迟了,上课取消了。

误:The exam was postponed, the class was cancelled.

正:The exam was postponed, and the class was cancelled.

As the exam was postponed, the class was cancelled.

b.  雨下了整整一夜,天花板开始漏水。

误:It rained all night, the ceiling began to leak.

正:It rained all night, and the ceiling began to leak.

The ceiling began to leak because it had rained all night.

The night-long rain caused the ceiling to leak.

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c.  他举起一块石头,石头砸在他的脚上。

误:He lifted a rock, it fell on his feet.

正:He lifted a rock, but it fell on his feet.

He lifted a rock only to drop it on his feet.

d.  售票处排起了长队,所有票子都已售完。

误:Many people lined up at the ticket booth, all the tickets had been sold out.

正:Many people lined up at the ticket booth, but all the tickets had been sold out.

Many people lined up at the ticket booth, though all the tickets had been sold out.

Many people lined up at the ticket booth, despite the fact that all the tickets had been sold out.

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(2)同样一句话,用了逗号,或者多用了一个逗号,或者逗号的位置不同,意思会完全改变。(2)同样一句话,用了逗号,或者多用了一个逗号,或者逗号的位置不同,意思会完全改变。

a. 作者原来的意思是:There were ten chairs in the room. Three of them were broken. The others were fine. 下面哪一句最符合原意:

(i)  The chairs, which were in bad condition, were sent out to be repaired.

(ii)  The chairs which were in bad condition were sent out to be repaired.

(iii)  The chairs, which were in bad condition were sent out to be repaired.

(iv)  The chairs which were in bad condition, were sent out to be repaired.

正确选择应为(ii)。如果选(i),则意味着所有椅子都坏了。(iii)和(iv)在语法上都不成立。

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b.  请指出下面两个句子的意思有什么不同。

(i)  Although all their furniture was destroyed when their house burned down, most of Peter’s records, lectures, and speeches, were saved.

尽管他们的房子被烧毁时,所有的家具都毁坏了,但是彼得大部分的唱片、讲稿和演说稿被保存下来。

(ii)  Although all their furniture was destroyed when their house burned down, most of Peter’s records, lectures and speeches, were saved.

尽管他们的房子被烧毁时,所有的家具都毁坏了,但是彼得大部分的资料,即讲稿和演说稿被保存下来。

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(3)去掉多余的逗号。

a. 误:The rise in crime is attributed to drug abuse, and organized robbery.

正:The rise in crime is attributed to drug abuse and organized robbery.

b. 误:He told me that he hoped to buy a new car, and to sell his old one.

正:He told me that he hoped to buy a new car and to sell his old one.

c. 误:His students, listened eagerly, busily taking down his words.

正:His students listened eagerly, busily taking down his words.

d.  误:A letter, that is written in pencil, is difficult to read.

正:A letter that is written in pencil is difficult to read.

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e. 误: Indeed, overpopulation(人口过剩), a problem, most people have only recently begun to recognize, is the main source of the majority of our other ecological(生态学) difficulties.

正:Indeed, overpopulation, a problem most people have only recently begun to recognize, is the main source of the majority of our other ecological difficulties.

f. 误: Americans, who go to other countries, expecting the same air conditioning, ice water, and private baths, found in hotels in the United States, are often very poor ambassadors.

正:Americans who go to other countries expecting the same air conditioning, ice water, and private baths found in hotels in the United States are often very poor ambassadors.

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(4)增添必要的逗号,使句子变得完整。

  • 误:Robert entered the inn and ordered half a loaf of new bread some local butter some cheese a large onion and a pint of beer.
  • 正:Robert entered the inn and ordered half a loaf of new bread, some local butter, some cheese, a large onion, and a pint of beer.
  • b. 误:He should or rather must attend better to his studies.
  • 正:He should, or rather must, attend better to his studies.
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c.误:The lady was dressed in gray the color of a pigeon’s feathers.

正:The lady was dressed in gray, the color of a pigeon’s feathers.

d. 误:“I do not know when he will come how he will come with whom he will come or whether he will come at all.”

正:“I do not know when he will come, how he will come, with whom he will come, or whether he will come at all.”

e. 误:We do not have tell you the true a very good opinion of him.

正:We do not have, tell you the true, a very good opinion of him.

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(5)分号常用在两个或两个以上关系比较密切的分句之间。我们常常可以通过使用分号来代替串句中的逗号,就可以改正串句的错误。(5)分号常用在两个或两个以上关系比较密切的分句之间。我们常常可以通过使用分号来代替串句中的逗号,就可以改正串句的错误。

a. 误:One moment he was friendly the next he was indifferent(漠不关心).

正:One moment he was friendly; the next he was indifferent.

b. 误:He knew what he wanted however he did not know how to get it.

正:He knew what he wanted; however he did not know how to get it.

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c. 误:You must work hard otherwise you will not pass the examination.

正:You must work hard; otherwise you will not pass the examination.

d. 误:There seemed no chance of coming to an agreement therefore it was decided to break off negotiations.

正:There seemed no chance of coming to an agreement; therefore it was decided to break off negotiations.

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(6)引号主要用于直接引语,但也可用于书名或用于要引起人们注意的单词或短语上。引号还分双引号和单引号,美国英文一般用双引号。请给序列句子添上引号,同时注意标上其他必要的符号,如逗号、句号、冒号、问号、惊叹号等。(6)引号主要用于直接引语,但也可用于书名或用于要引起人们注意的单词或短语上。引号还分双引号和单引号,美国英文一般用双引号。请给序列句子添上引号,同时注意标上其他必要的符号,如逗号、句号、冒号、问号、惊叹号等。

a.  误:How do you spell the word Renaissance(复兴)

正:How do you spell the word “Renaissance” ?

b.  误:I know he said but I can’t wait

正:“I know, ” he said, “but I can’t wait. ”

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c. 误:After the lecture he had but one comment Useless

正:After the lecture he had but one comment: “Useless. ”

d. 误:Then addressing(招呼) me she said with enforced calmness My son is ill

正:Then addressing me, she said, with enforced calmness: “My son is ill. ”

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(7)请给下列句子添上撇号(省字号)。

a. Too many ands suggest immaturity of style.

Too many and’s suggest immaturity of style.

b. How many As have you got in the terminal exams?

How many A’s have you got in the terminal exams?

c. Do you see Mr. Jones car over there?

Do you see Mr. Jones’ car over there?

d. Congreve seldom crossed his ts, his 7s looked like 9s, and his ands were usually £s.

Congreve seldom crossed his t’s, his 7’s looked like 9’s, and his and’s were usually £’s.

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6.2 用词混淆

  • 英文一些单词极易混淆。有的发音相似,甚至相同,但意义却完全不同;有的拼写大同小异,意思却大相径庭;有的貌似反义词,却是同义词。
  • (1)英文里有3对词(只有3对),表面上看绝对是反义词,意义上却是同义词。你能从下面6对词中找出这3对词吗?
  • flammable / inflammable 易燃的(同义词)
  • hinge / unhinge 装上铰链 / 取下铰链(反义词)
  • valuable / invaluable 宝贵的(同义词)
  • integrate / disintegrate 集成 / 分解(反义词)
  • furl / unfurl 卷起 / 铺开(反义词)
  • ravel / unravel 解开(同义词)
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(2)下面是一些中国学生经常混淆的单词。请你指出下列各对单词在词义或用法上的差别。(2)下面是一些中国学生经常混淆的单词。请你指出下列各对单词在词义或用法上的差别。

  • the diseased / the deceased 病人 / 死人
  • illusion / delusion 幻想 / 错觉
  • attribute / contribute (把某结果)归因于 / 是(某结果的)部分原因
  • complement / compliment 补充 / 恭维
  • council / counsel 委员会 / 忠告
  • credible / credulous 可信的 / 轻信的
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human / humane 人的 / 人道的

  • moral / morale 道德 / 士气
  • proceed / precede 着手;继续进行 / 领先于
  • principle / principal 原则;原理 / 校长;主要的
  • incident / incidence 事件 / 死亡率;影响范围
  • capital / capitol 首都;资金 / 国会大厦
  • model / module 模型;模特儿 / 模块;登月舱
  • drive / driver 驱动(动词);驱动器 / 驱动器;驱动程序
  • assemble / assembly 组装;汇编(动词) / 组件;汇编(名词)
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(3)下面每个句子中都有一个词用错了,请加以纠正(3)下面每个句子中都有一个词用错了,请加以纠正

  • U. S. laws concerning the sell (sale) and consumption of alcohol may seem very liberal or very constraining to you, depending on your nationality.
  • In the United States, it is illegible (illegal) to purchase alcoholic drinks, including beer and wine, until you reach the age of 21.
  • Laws governing alcohol can variable (vary) from state to state.
  • For example, it is illegal in some states to walk along the street with an open contain (container) of beer.
  • In some states, alcoholic beverages can be purchased only in special, state-runned (run) stores.
  • Colleges and universities often have policies that refrain (restrict) the consumption of alcoholic beverages on campus.
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6.3 搭配问题

英文中有许多动词需要与介词或副词搭配使用,例如come,break,give,take,put等等,如果要列出它们所有的搭配情况,那么可以构成一本厚厚的字典。这里,我们只是希望通过一些练习,引起学生对这种搭配问题的重视。

当我们强调注意动词与介词或副词搭配使用的时候,不要错误地认为所有动词都必须与介词或副词搭配使用。请做下面练习,每句话里都有4个动词,指出哪些动词不需要与介词或副词搭配,哪些动词需要搭配,并把介词或副词写出来。

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a.  Many passengers ( criticize; condemn; complain about; find fault with ) the irregular bus services in the city.

b. Our teacher ( apologized for; referred to; regretted; explained ) his absence yesterday.

c. Nobody is (objecting to; opposing; resisting; interfering with ) the scheme to close down the factory.

d. The man next door is ( paying for; purchasing; disposing of ; saving up for ) a second-hand car.

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e.  My room-mate ( insists on; enjoys; persists in; hates ) getting up early.

f. His collection of records ( includes; consists of; comprises; covers ) jazz, blues, and raps.

g. The opposition intends to ( accept; agree to; dissent from; modify ) the new proposal.

h.  Mary’s aunt was ( warned about; punished for; advised against; caught ) exceeding the speed limit.

i. The man ( depended on; confessed to; considered; specialized in ) stealing for a living.

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6.4 漏词

  • 该搭配使用的动词没有使用介词或副词,可以看作是一种漏词现象。除此之外,还表现在许多地方。有的学生写的英文句子,甚至连主语都没有。例如,“讲座后开了个讨论会”被翻译成“After the lecture held a discussion.”正确的说法应该是“After the lecture a discussion was held.”
  • 下面的句子都有漏词现象,请你加以改正。
  • It is said that a person’s childhood years are the most important years in a person’s life.
  • I dare say most people agree with the above statement.
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In my opinion the most important years in a person’s life are those of early adulthood.

  • In this period, a person experiences the most important stages in his life: higher education, love, and marriage.
  • Many things will depend on his education background --- what occupation he can take up, how much money he can earn, what kind of life he will lead and so on.
  • Only when they come of age(成年) will they understand the true meaning of life, experience real joys and sorrows, and begin to assume their responsibilities in family and society.
  • Modern science has made it possible for babies to grow healthily and for people to live longer.
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6.5 累赘

中文有时为了表达强调或情感等意思,常常将一些句子或字加以重复,或者稍作改变。而英文则比较简洁。请将下面的中英文句子作一个对比:

中文:年轻人应该向老年人学习,老年人也应该向年轻人学习。

英文:The young should learn from the old and vice versa.

中文:我们要学习,学习,再学习。

英文:We must keep studying. 或We must study persistently.

下面划线的部分表示用词重复,请改进这些句子,使它们变得简洁明了。

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a. 原句:The speaker was the chairman of the Department of Physics of Tulane University.

改为:The speaker was the chairman of Tulane University’s Department of Physics.

b. 原句:I offered the tickets to the concert to the students to use on Saturday.

改为:I offered the students tickets to Saturday’s concert.

c. 原句:Speech is silver, and silence is gold.

改为:Speech is silver and silence gold.

d. 原句:Her hair is light brown, and her eyes are bluish green.

改为:Her hair is light brown and her eyes bluish green.

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e. 原句:Some lawyers are arrogant(傲慢的), and some lawyers are simply reserved(沉默寡言的).

  • 改为:Some lawyers are arrogant and others simply reserved.
  • 原句:For some students beer drinking has become a way of life, and other students drink beer in order to escape.
  • 改为: For some students beer drinking has become a way of life, and for others a means of escape.
  • g. 原句:Go ahead if you think the job suits you and don’t go ahead if you don’t think the job suits you.
  • 改为:Go ahead if you think the job suits you and don’t if not.
  • h. 原句:Dogs often chase(追赶) cats and cats not usually chase dogs.
  • 改为:Dogs often chase cats and not usually vice versa.
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原句: The machine is working when the red light is on and the machine is not working when the red light is off.

  • 改为:The machine is working when the red light is on and not otherwise.
  • j. 原句:For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.
  • 改为:The diligent and kind people use money only to buy what they need.
  • k. 原句:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.
  • 改为:In spite of his laziness, I like him.
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6.6 不一致

英文句子的前后呼应是一个重要的问题,表现在主语和谓语、主格和宾格、单数和复数、时态一致等方面。如果出了差错,不仅仅是语法问题,而且很容易造成意思上的误解。例如,people后面跟have是指“人民”,后面跟has,则指的是“民族”。“Each people have its own culture.”由于不注意这个问题,这个句子就让人无法理解。

下面的句子都是用词前后不一致的病句,请加以改正。

a. Once one have (has) money, he can do what he want (wants) (to do).

b. Riding the horse was (were) the two girls, Valerie and Therese.

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c. She took advantage of anyone or anything who or which (that) could further her career.

d.  Deciding that they could reach no decision that night, the jury retired to its (their) rooms to get some sleep.

e. The foreman(工头) shouted at both of us, Peter and I (me), before we had a chance to explain.

f.  It took them one and a half day (days) to complete the work.

g. He hurried because he knew his family was (were) waiting for him anxiously.

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h. The United States Department of Agriculture supervise (supervises) the quality, cleanness, and purity of meat.

i. The term “technology” refers to the discoveries and inventions that help people improve its (their) way of life.

j. The ability to retain a mental record of earlier experiences are (is) referred to as memory.

k. Every year Colorado is visited by millions of tourists who come for a variety of reason (reasons).

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l. Countries tend to specialize in the production and export of those goods and services that it (they) can produce relatively cheaply.

m. Turkey and dressing are (is) a popular dish at Thanks-giving.

n.  In the new building there are (is) a library, which has no books, and a music practice room, which has no musical instruments.

o. Roy is the only one of our athletes who have (has) won a gold medal.

p. This habit, which in itself are (is) harmless, are (is) likely to lead to others that is (are) decidedly harmful.

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6.7 不平衡

如果在英文句子中有两个或两个以上的平行成分,那么这些成分应该保持平衡。例如,你想表达下述意思:“她既漂亮,又温柔,还勤俭持家。”在中文中“漂亮”和“温柔”是形容词,而“勤俭持家”却是动词短语。写成英文,最好使用三个平行的形容词:She is pretty, tender, and thrifty(节约的),而不要像中文那样写成:She is pretty, tender, and manages the household thriftily。

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请修改下面的句子,使它们的结构保持平衡。

a. 原句:To swim in a pool is not as much fun as swimming in a river.

改为:Swimming in a pool is not as much fun as (swimming) in a river.

b. 原句:Knowing how to study and learn to budget time are important to college students.

改为:Knowing how to study and learning how to budget time are important to college students

c. 原句:Dentists advise brushing your teeth after every meal and to avoid sugar in your diet.

改为:Dentists advise brushing your teeth after every meal and avoiding sugar in your diet.

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d. 原句:My orders said that I was assigned to Alaska and I should leave within two weeks.

改为:My orders said that I was assigned to Alaska and that I should leave within two weeks.

e. 原句:We met a Frenchman who had lived in Brazil, but he knew very little about his own country.

改为:We met a Frenchman who had lived in Brazil but who knew very little about his own country.

f. 原句:Our instructor suggested several books for supplementary reading and that we should do research on the subject.

改为:Our instructor suggested that we read several supplementary books and that we should do research on the subject.

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6.8 错位

英文句子的每个成分,如主语、谓语、宾语、定语合状语,应在句子中占有正确的位置。如果放错了位置,那么这个句子不仅是个病句,而且很可能造成意思上的误解。中文则不同,词序有较大的灵活性。例如,我不吃羊肉/羊肉我不吃/我羊肉不吃,在中文里面都是正确的,大家都能理解。但是,用英文表达,恐怕只能说 I don’t eat mutton,绝对不能说 I mutton don’t eat。

a. 误:Ralph Nader has throughout our country become a well known name.

正:Ralph Nader has become a well known name throughout our country.

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b. 误:He is prone(倾向于) to whenever he senses a danger to the public speak out(大胆地说)on consumer goods.

正:He is prone to speak out on consumer goods whenever he senses a danger to the public.

c. 误:Nader thinks that the automobile is both unsafe to the occupants of the car and to the general public.

正:Nader thinks that the automobile is unsafe both to the occupants of the car and to the general public.

d. 误:Partly through his efforts safety devices ware installed in cars such as seat belts.

正:Partly through his efforts safety devices such as seat belts ware installed in cars.

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e. 误:Nader’s concern has been the automobile as a major air polluter lately.

正:Nader’s concern has lately been the automobile as a major air polluter. 或者

Nader’s recent concern has been the automobile as a major air polluter.

f. 误:According to Nader, the technology is available for the production of automobiles that are both efficient and pollution-free now.

正:According to Nader, the technology is available now for the production of automobiles that are both efficient and pollution-free.

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g. 误:Nader claims that facts are being suppressed about the technology available for improving automobiles by the industry and by the government.

正:Nader claims that facts are being suppressed by the industry and by the government about the technology available for improving automobiles.

h. 误:Nader says that today’s gasoline produce five major pollutants which are labeled “clean”.

正:Nader says that today’s gasolines which are labeled “clean” produce five major pollutants.

i. 误:I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.

正:I believe I can do it well and I will know the world outside the campus better.

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6.9 垂悬

中国人可以这样说:“打了一小时篮球,胳膊都酸了。”英文却不能说:Having played basketball for an hour, my arms began to ache,因为按照英文语法,这个句子会被误解为打篮球的是胳膊,而不是你这个人。这种错误称为悬垂,它是指句首的分词短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清,找不到行为者,只好“晃来晃去”。

请改正下列句子的垂悬错误。

a. 误:At the age of six months, her father taught her to swim.

正:When she was six months old, her father taught her to swim.

b. 误:Going through the red light, the traffic police on duty stopped him.

正:Going through the red light, he was stopped by the traffic police on duty.

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c. 误:After three hours of practice, a drink was what the thirsty dancers wanted.

正:Having practiced for three hours, the thirsty dancers wanted a drink.

d. 误:Once out of the practice room, the piping music no longer gave him a headache.

正:Once he got out of the practice room, the piping music no longer gave him a headache.

e. 误:After four weeks at sea, my wife was happy to see me back.

正:After four weeks at sea, I was affectionately(亲切地) received by my wife.

f. 误:Examining the shopping receipts, it became obvious that I was overcharged at the store.

正:After I examined the shopping receipts, it became obvious that I was overcharged at the store.

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g. 误:Finding nobody waiting at the stop, the bus drove on without stopping.

正:Finding nobody waiting at the stop, the driver drove the bus on without stopping.

h. 误:Approaching the lake, an amazing sight came into view.

正:As we approached the lake, an amazing sight came into view.

i. 误:To do well in the college, good grades are essential.

正:To do well in the college, a student needs good grades.

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6.10 应用定语从句时易犯的错误

由于定语从句的结构和用法比较复杂,初学者在使用时往往容易犯一些错误,最常见的有如下七种:

(1)在定语从句中加了多余的宾语。如:

a. 误:Some of the boys I invited them didn’t come.

正:Some of the boys I invited didn’t come.

b. 误:The book that you need it is in the library.

正:The book that you need is in the library.

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(2)把定语从句谓语动词的单、复数弄错。如:(2)把定语从句谓语动词的单、复数弄错。如:

a. 误:Anyone who break the law will be punished.

正:Anyone who breaks the law will be punished.

b. 误:Those who has finished may go home.

正:Those who have finished may go home.

c. 误:He is the only one of the teachers who know French in our school.

正:He is the only one of the teachers who knows French in our school.

d. 误:This is one of the rooms that is free now.

正:This is one of the rooms that are free now.

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(3)误省略了定语从句中做主语的关系代词。如:(3)误省略了定语从句中做主语的关系代词。如:

a. 误:Children eat a lot of sugar often have bad teeth.

正:Children who / that eat a lot of sugar often have bad teeth.

b. 误:The key opens the bike is missing.

正:The key that / which opens the bike is missing.

(4)定语从句中加了多余的关系副词或介词。如:

a. 误:The house where he lives in needs repairing.

正:The house where he lives needs repairing. 或者

The house he lives in needs repairing.

b. 误:I still remember the day on when I first came to Beijing.

正:I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. 或者

I still remember the day on which I first came to Beijing.

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(5)错用了关系代词或关系副词,使得从句中的及物动词缺少宾语或介词缺少对象。(5)错用了关系代词或关系副词,使得从句中的及物动词缺少宾语或介词缺少对象。

a. 误:I still remember the day when we spent together.

正:I still remember the day that / which we spent together.

b. 误:This is the house where we lived in last year.

正:This is the house which / that we lived in last year.

(6)在先行词reason后错用关系副词why。如:

a. 误:Have you asked her for the reason why may explain her absence?

正:Have you asked her for the reason that / which may explain her absence?

b. 误:I don’t believe the reason why he has given for his being late.

正:I don’t believe the reason that / which he has given for his being late.

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(7)误将强调句型当定语从句。如:

a. 误:It was in the kitchen where the fire broke out.

正:It was in the kitchen that the fire broke out.

b. 误:Was it because it snowed last night when you didn’t come?

正:Was it because it snowed last night that you didn’t come?

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练习六

  • 一、下面的句子都有意思模糊的错误。作者本人可能并没有意识到犯了错误,可是读者却看不明白他究竟要表达什么。请你把每句话的多种意思写出来。
  • a. The lamb was too hot to eat.
    • 1. The lamb was too hot.
  • We couldn’t eat it.
    • 2. The lamb felt so hot.
  • It couldn’t eat anything.
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b. The police were ordered to stop drinking in the park.

    • 1. The police drank in the park.
  • They were ordered to stop drinking.
    • 2. Visitors drank in the park.
  • The police were ordered to stop them from drinking.
  • c. Flying planes can be very dangerous.
    • 1. Some planes are flying(飞翔).
  • They can be very dangerous.
    • 2. Some people are flying(驾驶) planes.
  • It can be very dangerous.
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d. I have always enjoyed entertaining girls.

    • 1. I have always liked to entertain(款待) other people.
  • These people are girls.
    • 2. I have always liked girls.
  • These girls entertain(接待客人).
  • e. He told his father he had been talking too much.
    • 1. He criticized his father for talking too much.
    • 2. He admitted to his father that he had been talking too much.
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f. He said he wouldn’t take it if he gave it to him.

    • 1. He said, “I won’t take it if he gives it to me.”
    • 2. He said, “He won’t take it if I give it to him.”
  • g. The delegation proposed that the motion be tabled.
    • 1. The delegation proposed that the motion be placed on the agenda for consideration.(英式英文: table 把…列入议程)
    • 2. The delegation proposed that the motion be removed from consideration.(美式英文: table 搁置)
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二、将下列术语或短语翻译成中文。

    • 1. fixed partition memory management
    • 2. bits transmitted in parallel
    • 3. a set of consecutive sectors
    • 4. carrier signal
    • 5. data flow diagram
    • 6. multiprogramming OS
    • 7. remote data communication
    • 8. transaction processing
    • 9. Mnemonic (memory-aiding) instruction
    • 10. object-oriented database
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11. accumulator register

  • 12. concurrent operating
  • 13. a grid of pixels
  • 14. redundant data
  • 15. wide-band channels
  • 16. random or direct access
  • 17. 1000 revolutions per minute
  • 18. virtual memory address
  • 19. cylinders of a fixed disk
  • 20. transmission control unit
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21. addressing memory

  • 22. ASCII (the American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
  • 23. capital letter (upper case)
  • 24. small letter (lower case)
  • 25. case sensitive
  • 26. binary number
  • 27. random access memory
  • 28. read-only memory
  • 29. a ROM-based program
  • 30. a program based on ROM
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31. instruction time

  • 32. execution time
  • 33. seek time
  • 34. punched cards
  • 35. multimedia technology
  • 36. channels and control units
  • 37. a touch screen
  • 38. computer output microfilm (COM)
  • 39. magnetic stripe card
  • 40. a peripheral device
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41. device-dependent

  • 42. magnetic cassette
  • 43. secondary storage media
  • 44. nonvolatile memory
  • 45. drive mechanism
  • 46. concentric circles
  • 47. rotational delay
  • 48. vacuum encapsulation
  • 49. a disk pack
  • 50. a laser beam