第六章 标准英语写作 提要 ：本章主要是帮助学生了解英汉的差异，明白自己在写英文时受到汉语哪些干扰，从提高单句的写作能力着手，消灭各种类型的基本错误，从而提高整体的写作能力。 1. 标点错误 2. 用词混淆 3. 搭配问题 4. 漏词 5. 累赘 6. 不一致 7. 不平衡 8. 错位 9. 垂悬 10. 应用定语从句时易犯的错误.
而英文要说“An English man who could not speak Chinese was once traveling in China．”
又比如：“他笑了，我哭了”。英文不能说“He laughed, I cried.”而要说“He laughed, but I cried.”
误：The exam was postponed, the class was cancelled.
正：The exam was postponed, and the class was cancelled.
As the exam was postponed, the class was cancelled.
误：It rained all night, the ceiling began to leak.
正：It rained all night, and the ceiling began to leak.
The ceiling began to leak because it had rained all night.
The night-long rain caused the ceiling to leak.
误：He lifted a rock, it fell on his feet.
正：He lifted a rock, but it fell on his feet.
He lifted a rock only to drop it on his feet.
误：Many people lined up at the ticket booth, all the tickets had been sold out.
正：Many people lined up at the ticket booth, but all the tickets had been sold out.
Many people lined up at the ticket booth, though all the tickets had been sold out.
Many people lined up at the ticket booth, despite the fact that all the tickets had been sold out.
a. 作者原来的意思是：There were ten chairs in the room. Three of them were broken. The others were fine. 下面哪一句最符合原意：
(i) The chairs, which were in bad condition, were sent out to be repaired.
(ii) The chairs which were in bad condition were sent out to be repaired.
(iii) The chairs, which were in bad condition were sent out to be repaired.
(iv) The chairs which were in bad condition, were sent out to be repaired.
(i) Although all their furniture was destroyed when their house burned down, most of Peter’s records, lectures, and speeches, were saved.
(ii) Although all their furniture was destroyed when their house burned down, most of Peter’s records, lectures and speeches, were saved.
a. 误：The rise in crime is attributed to drug abuse, and organized robbery.
正：The rise in crime is attributed to drug abuse and organized robbery.
b. 误：He told me that he hoped to buy a new car, and to sell his old one.
正：He told me that he hoped to buy a new car and to sell his old one.
c. 误：His students, listened eagerly, busily taking down his words.
正：His students listened eagerly, busily taking down his words.
d. 误：A letter, that is written in pencil, is difficult to read.
正：A letter that is written in pencil is difficult to read.
e. 误： Indeed, overpopulation(人口过剩), a problem, most people have only recently begun to recognize, is the main source of the majority of our other ecological(生态学) difficulties.
正：Indeed, overpopulation, a problem most people have only recently begun to recognize, is the main source of the majority of our other ecological difficulties.
f. 误： Americans, who go to other countries, expecting the same air conditioning, ice water, and private baths, found in hotels in the United States, are often very poor ambassadors.
正：Americans who go to other countries expecting the same air conditioning, ice water, and private baths found in hotels in the United States are often very poor ambassadors.
c.误：The lady was dressed in gray the color of a pigeon’s feathers.
正：The lady was dressed in gray, the color of a pigeon’s feathers.
d. 误：“I do not know when he will come how he will come with whom he will come or whether he will come at all.”
正：“I do not know when he will come, how he will come, with whom he will come, or whether he will come at all.”
e. 误：We do not have tell you the true a very good opinion of him.
正：We do not have, tell you the true, a very good opinion of him.
a. 误：One moment he was friendly the next he was indifferent(漠不关心).
正：One moment he was friendly; the next he was indifferent.
b. 误：He knew what he wanted however he did not know how to get it.
正：He knew what he wanted; however he did not know how to get it.
正：You must work hard; otherwise you will not pass the examination.
d. 误：There seemed no chance of coming to an agreement therefore it was decided to break off negotiations.
正：There seemed no chance of coming to an agreement; therefore it was decided to break off negotiations.
a. 误：How do you spell the word Renaissance(复兴)
正：How do you spell the word “Renaissance” ?
b. 误：I know he said but I can’t wait
正：“I know, ” he said, “but I can’t wait. ”
正：After the lecture he had but one comment: “Useless. ”
d. 误：Then addressing(招呼) me she said with enforced calmness My son is ill
正：Then addressing me, she said, with enforced calmness: “My son is ill. ”
a. Too many ands suggest immaturity of style.
Too many and’s suggest immaturity of style.
b. How many As have you got in the terminal exams?
How many A’s have you got in the terminal exams?
c. Do you see Mr. Jones car over there?
Do you see Mr. Jones’ car over there?
d. Congreve seldom crossed his ts, his 7s looked like 9s, and his ands were usually £s.
Congreve seldom crossed his t’s, his 7’s looked like 9’s, and his and’s were usually £’s.
a. Many passengers ( criticize; condemn; complain about; find fault with ) the irregular bus services in the city.
b. Our teacher ( apologized for; referred to; regretted; explained ) his absence yesterday.
c. Nobody is (objecting to; opposing; resisting; interfering with ) the scheme to close down the factory.
d. The man next door is ( paying for; purchasing; disposing of ; saving up for ) a second-hand car.
e. My room-mate ( insists on; enjoys; persists in; hates ) getting up early.
f. His collection of records ( includes; consists of; comprises; covers ) jazz, blues, and raps.
g. The opposition intends to ( accept; agree to; dissent from; modify ) the new proposal.
h. Mary’s aunt was ( warned about; punished for; advised against; caught ) exceeding the speed limit.
i. The man ( depended on; confessed to; considered; specialized in ) stealing for a living.
In my opinion the most important years in a person’s life are those of early adulthood.
英文：The young should learn from the old and vice versa.
英文：We must keep studying. 或We must study persistently.
a. 原句：The speaker was the chairman of the Department of Physics of Tulane University.
改为：The speaker was the chairman of Tulane University’s Department of Physics.
b. 原句：I offered the tickets to the concert to the students to use on Saturday.
改为：I offered the students tickets to Saturday’s concert.
c. 原句：Speech is silver, and silence is gold.
改为：Speech is silver and silence gold.
d. 原句：Her hair is light brown, and her eyes are bluish green.
改为：Her hair is light brown and her eyes bluish green.
e. 原句：Some lawyers are arrogant(傲慢的), and some lawyers are simply reserved(沉默寡言的).
原句： The machine is working when the red light is on and the machine is not working when the red light is off.
英文句子的前后呼应是一个重要的问题，表现在主语和谓语、主格和宾格、单数和复数、时态一致等方面。如果出了差错，不仅仅是语法问题，而且很容易造成意思上的误解。例如，people后面跟have是指“人民”，后面跟has，则指的是“民族”。“Each people have its own culture.”由于不注意这个问题，这个句子就让人无法理解。
a. Once one have (has) money, he can do what he want (wants) (to do).
b. Riding the horse was (were) the two girls, Valerie and Therese.
c. She took advantage of anyone or anything who or which (that) could further her career.
d. Deciding that they could reach no decision that night, the jury retired to its (their) rooms to get some sleep.
e. The foreman(工头) shouted at both of us, Peter and I (me), before we had a chance to explain.
f. It took them one and a half day (days) to complete the work.
g. He hurried because he knew his family was (were) waiting for him anxiously.
h. The United States Department of Agriculture supervise (supervises) the quality, cleanness, and purity of meat.
i. The term “technology” refers to the discoveries and inventions that help people improve its (their) way of life.
j. The ability to retain a mental record of earlier experiences are (is) referred to as memory.
k. Every year Colorado is visited by millions of tourists who come for a variety of reason (reasons).
l. Countries tend to specialize in the production and export of those goods and services that it (they) can produce relatively cheaply.
m. Turkey and dressing are (is) a popular dish at Thanks-giving.
n. In the new building there are (is) a library, which has no books, and a music practice room, which has no musical instruments.
o. Roy is the only one of our athletes who have (has) won a gold medal.
p. This habit, which in itself are (is) harmless, are (is) likely to lead to others that is (are) decidedly harmful.
如果在英文句子中有两个或两个以上的平行成分，那么这些成分应该保持平衡。例如，你想表达下述意思：“她既漂亮，又温柔，还勤俭持家。”在中文中“漂亮”和“温柔”是形容词，而“勤俭持家”却是动词短语。写成英文，最好使用三个平行的形容词：She is pretty, tender, and thrifty(节约的)，而不要像中文那样写成：She is pretty, tender, and manages the household thriftily。
a. 原句：To swim in a pool is not as much fun as swimming in a river.
改为：Swimming in a pool is not as much fun as (swimming) in a river.
b. 原句：Knowing how to study and learn to budget time are important to college students.
改为：Knowing how to study and learning how to budget time are important to college students
c. 原句：Dentists advise brushing your teeth after every meal and to avoid sugar in your diet.
改为：Dentists advise brushing your teeth after every meal and avoiding sugar in your diet.
d. 原句：My orders said that I was assigned to Alaska and I should leave within two weeks.
改为：My orders said that I was assigned to Alaska and that I should leave within two weeks.
e. 原句：We met a Frenchman who had lived in Brazil, but he knew very little about his own country.
改为：We met a Frenchman who had lived in Brazil but who knew very little about his own country.
f. 原句：Our instructor suggested several books for supplementary reading and that we should do research on the subject.
改为：Our instructor suggested that we read several supplementary books and that we should do research on the subject.
英文句子的每个成分，如主语、谓语、宾语、定语合状语，应在句子中占有正确的位置。如果放错了位置，那么这个句子不仅是个病句，而且很可能造成意思上的误解。中文则不同，词序有较大的灵活性。例如，我不吃羊肉/羊肉我不吃/我羊肉不吃，在中文里面都是正确的，大家都能理解。但是，用英文表达，恐怕只能说 I don’t eat mutton，绝对不能说 I mutton don’t eat。
a. 误：Ralph Nader has throughout our country become a well known name.
正：Ralph Nader has become a well known name throughout our country.
b. 误：He is prone(倾向于) to whenever he senses a danger to the public speak out(大胆地说)on consumer goods.
正：He is prone to speak out on consumer goods whenever he senses a danger to the public.
c. 误：Nader thinks that the automobile is both unsafe to the occupants of the car and to the general public.
正：Nader thinks that the automobile is unsafe both to the occupants of the car and to the general public.
d. 误：Partly through his efforts safety devices ware installed in cars such as seat belts.
正：Partly through his efforts safety devices such as seat belts ware installed in cars.
e. 误：Nader’s concern has been the automobile as a major air polluter lately.
正：Nader’s concern has lately been the automobile as a major air polluter. 或者
Nader’s recent concern has been the automobile as a major air polluter.
f. 误：According to Nader, the technology is available for the production of automobiles that are both efficient and pollution-free now.
正：According to Nader, the technology is available now for the production of automobiles that are both efficient and pollution-free.
g. 误：Nader claims that facts are being suppressed about the technology available for improving automobiles by the industry and by the government.
正：Nader claims that facts are being suppressed by the industry and by the government about the technology available for improving automobiles.
h. 误：Nader says that today’s gasoline produce five major pollutants which are labeled “clean”.
正：Nader says that today’s gasolines which are labeled “clean” produce five major pollutants.
i. 误：I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.
正：I believe I can do it well and I will know the world outside the campus better.
中国人可以这样说：“打了一小时篮球，胳膊都酸了。”英文却不能说：Having played basketball for an hour, my arms began to ache，因为按照英文语法，这个句子会被误解为打篮球的是胳膊，而不是你这个人。这种错误称为悬垂，它是指句首的分词短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清，找不到行为者，只好“晃来晃去”。
a. 误：At the age of six months, her father taught her to swim.
正：When she was six months old, her father taught her to swim.
b. 误：Going through the red light, the traffic police on duty stopped him.
正：Going through the red light, he was stopped by the traffic police on duty.
c. 误：After three hours of practice, a drink was what the thirsty dancers wanted.
正：Having practiced for three hours, the thirsty dancers wanted a drink.
d. 误：Once out of the practice room, the piping music no longer gave him a headache.
正：Once he got out of the practice room, the piping music no longer gave him a headache.
e. 误：After four weeks at sea, my wife was happy to see me back.
正：After four weeks at sea, I was affectionately(亲切地) received by my wife.
f. 误：Examining the shopping receipts, it became obvious that I was overcharged at the store.
正：After I examined the shopping receipts, it became obvious that I was overcharged at the store.
g. 误：Finding nobody waiting at the stop, the bus drove on without stopping.
正：Finding nobody waiting at the stop, the driver drove the bus on without stopping.
h. 误：Approaching the lake, an amazing sight came into view.
正：As we approached the lake, an amazing sight came into view.
i. 误：To do well in the college, good grades are essential.
正：To do well in the college, a student needs good grades.
a. 误：Some of the boys I invited them didn’t come.
正：Some of the boys I invited didn’t come.
b. 误：The book that you need it is in the library.
正：The book that you need is in the library.
a. 误：Anyone who break the law will be punished.
正：Anyone who breaks the law will be punished.
b. 误：Those who has finished may go home.
正：Those who have finished may go home.
c. 误：He is the only one of the teachers who know French in our school.
正：He is the only one of the teachers who knows French in our school.
d. 误：This is one of the rooms that is free now.
正：This is one of the rooms that are free now.
a. 误：Children eat a lot of sugar often have bad teeth.
正：Children who / that eat a lot of sugar often have bad teeth.
b. 误：The key opens the bike is missing.
正：The key that / which opens the bike is missing.
a. 误：The house where he lives in needs repairing.
正：The house where he lives needs repairing. 或者
The house he lives in needs repairing.
b. 误：I still remember the day on when I first came to Beijing.
正：I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. 或者
I still remember the day on which I first came to Beijing.
a. 误：I still remember the day when we spent together.
正：I still remember the day that / which we spent together.
b. 误：This is the house where we lived in last year.
正：This is the house which / that we lived in last year.
a. 误：Have you asked her for the reason why may explain her absence?
正：Have you asked her for the reason that / which may explain her absence?
b. 误：I don’t believe the reason why he has given for his being late.
正：I don’t believe the reason that / which he has given for his being late.
a. 误：It was in the kitchen where the fire broke out.
正：It was in the kitchen that the fire broke out.
b. 误：Was it because it snowed last night when you didn’t come?
正：Was it because it snowed last night that you didn’t come?