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Graphic Novels in My Classroom?

Graphic Novels in My Classroom?

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Graphic Novels in My Classroom?

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  1. Graphic Novels in My Classroom? Larry Bedenbaugh UCF College of Education 8th Annual Literacy Symposium

  2. Food for Thought “My father used to try and help me, and I got to loving to read, because he allowed me to read comics, which most people said you shouldn't let your child read because they will spoil him. But that gave me an extraordinary hunger for reading.” ~ Bishop Desmond Tutu Nobel Prize Winner

  3. Food for Thought “On the basis of my personal experience and the research available, I would go so far as to say if you have a child who is struggling with reading, connect him or her with comics. If an interest appears, feed it with more comics.” ~ Jim Trelease Author and Educator

  4. Food for Thought “As one of only five art forms native to America: the banjo, jazz, musical comedy, the mystery novel, and the humble comic book, comic books deserve their place in our history, our culture, and our society." ~ David Jay Gabriel, President New York City Comic Book Museum

  5. Food for Thought “The great sorrow of my life is never having done comics.” ~ Pablo Picasso

  6. Food for Thought "Graphic novels are terrific in that they have a good story but they have pictures and images that teens can relate to and enjoy. So you get the combination of the words and the images that help pick up on the power of images in teens' lives." ~ Maurice Freedman, President American Library Association

  7. What are Graphic Novels? Will Eisner who initiated the term graphic novels, said they are “Sequential Art…the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatise an idea.”

  8. What are Graphic Novels? Keith R. A. DeCandido, an international best-selling author, defined a graphic novel as “a self contained story that uses a combination of text and art to articulate the plot.” Middle

  9. What are Graphic Novels? Diamond Comics defines graphic novels: A comic book that is longer in format than a pamphlet, and typically contains a complete story unto itself. Graphic novels usually have higher production values than the typical stapled comic book – they may be squarebound, for example, with cardstock covers. Some may be hardcover volumes. Although a graphic novel usually stands on its own as a complete story, it is possible to have a ongoing series or limited series of graphic novels telling a single story or series of related stories. High

  10. What are Graphic Novels? ALA RUSA Codes Materials Reviewing Committee defines graphic novels as: Books created in the format recognized as graphic novels are presented in sequential art, with the requirement upon creator and reader to work between image and word for a full understanding of narrative content. Such books usually include a structure of panels. For review purposes, graphic novels include independently conceived full-length narratives, bound volumes of longer sequential art series, and collections of works as brief as comic strips. Middle

  11. Genres of Graphic Novels • Superhero • Fantasy • Science fiction • Historical • Action/Adventure • Realistic Fiction • Biography • Adaptations of classics • Manga (Japanese comics) • Humor • Horror • Romance • Political commentary Middle

  12. Types of Graphic Novels • Human Interest Story • Adaptations or Spin-offs • Satire (Cartoon Journalism) • Nonfiction • Superhero • Manga Middle

  13. Milestones 1837 • The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck —earliest known comic book

  14. Milestones 1897 • The Yellow Kid in McFadden’s Flats coined the phrase, “comic book” • Beginning of the Platinum Age

  15. Milestones 1934 • Famous Funnies #1

  16. Milestones 1939 • Jerry Siegel and Joe Schuster create Superman, one of the first modern superheroes • Begins the Golden Age of Comics

  17. Milestones 1954 • Dr. Frederic Wertham published Seduction of the Innocent, condemning comic books as a negative influence on young children

  18. Milestones 1954 • US Senate investigates the relationship between comic books and juvenile delinquency

  19. Milestones 1954 • Comics Code Authority (analogous to Hollywood’s Code, but far stricter)

  20. Milestones 1956 • The Silver Age of Comics begins

  21. Milestones 1961 • Marvel publishes Fantastic Four #1

  22. Milestones 1978 • Will Eisner writes 1st graphic novel, A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories High

  23. Milestones 1992 • Art Spiegelman, won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1986 Maus I, an examination of the Holocaust Middle/High

  24. Milestones 1997 • Doug Murray, won the Best Media of the Vietnam War Award from the Bravo Organization for ‘The Nam Middle/High

  25. Milestones 2000 • In November The New York Times Book Review includes a review of four graphic novels

  26. Milestones 2001 • Chris Ware’s graphic novel, Jimmy Corrigan, won Britain’s Guardian First Book Award

  27. Milestones 2002 • The American Library Association's 2002 Teen Read Week theme was Getting Graphic @ Your Library

  28. Milestones 2002 • C.O.M.I.C.S. (Challenging Objective Minds: An Instructional Comicbook Series), by Dan Tandarich with the New York City Comic Book Museum, is developed to teach reading and writing skills

  29. Milestones 2002 • First Annual Free Comic Book Day

  30. Urban Legends of Graphic Novels • Nudity • Sex and innuendo • Excessive violence • Sexist • Inappropriate language • Crude humor • Frivolous entertainment • Short on redeeming social, educational, or moral value • Typically written at a fourth to sixth grade reading level • Hinders literacy development Adult

  31. What Does the Research Say? In 1981, Lee Dorrell and Ed Carroll performed a study in which the mere presence of comic books in a collection increased library use 82%, with a 30% increase in the circulation of non-comic book material. Middle

  32. What Does the Research Say? In a study of "rare words per 1000," D. P. Hayes & M. G. Ahrens (1988) showed that the oral language of college graduates as the low—17.3 rare words per 1000, and the abstracts of scientific articles as the high—128 rare words per 1000 and comic books introduced more new words than did adult books (53.5 vs. 52.7). High

  33. What Does the Research Say? A 1992 study of more than 200,000 students from 32 countries revealed that Finland, the nation with the highest proportion of comic book reading students (nearly 60%), also had the highest literacy rate (99%), as well as the highest library usage. Elementary

  34. What Does the Research Say? Stephen Krashen reported (1993) that research showed graphic novels are linguistically appropriate and bear no negative impact on language acquisition, and, in fact, light reading (e.g., graphic novels) positively correlated with achievement. Middle

  35. What Does the Research Say? In a 1993 study in the Journal of Child Language, researchers concluded that the average comic book introduced kids to twice as many words as the average children’s book, and five times as many words as they were likely to be exposed to in the average child-adult conversation. Middle

  36. What Does the Research Say? M. R. Lavin (1998) suggested that reading graphic novels may require more complex cognitive skills than the reading of text alone. High

  37. What Does the Research Say? Sherry Kerr and T. H. Culhane (2000) concluded that children who grow up with comic books often seem to have a better vocabulary and understanding of how to use verb tenses than those who, all other things being equal, do not read comics. Middle

  38. What Does the Research Say? M. W. Smith and J. D Wilhelm (2002) reported that boys in particular gravitated toward reading materials that were highly visual. Middle

  39. What Does the Research Say? Tabitha Simmons (2003) reported that in a graphic novel, readers must not only decode the words and the illustrations, but must also identify events between the visual sequences. Elementary

  40. What Does the Research Say? Robyn Hill (2004) concluded that reading comic books may help to (among others): • develop an increased interest in reading • develop language skills and a rich and varied vocabulary • foster interest in a variety of literary genres Teachers

  41. What Do Librarians Say? Steve Weiner, a Massachusetts librarian, saw his circulation jump 42% the first year he added superhero comics to his collection. Middle/High

  42. What Do Librarians Say? Sharon Richert said her Florida high school library Fiction section doubled in circulation and in one fifteen day span circulated almost 1,000 graphic novels.

  43. What Do Librarians Say? Francisca Goldsmith, the Collection Management and Promotion Librarian at Berkeley Public Library, said, “Some reluctant readers will gladly pick up a graphic novel over a typical novel and since the illustrations support the text, graphic novels also help encourage literacy.” Middle

  44. What Do Librarians Say? Middle school librarians, Larry Dorrell and Ed Carroll, noted at the conclusion of a study in Missouri that, “Library traffic experienced an immediate and lasting change after the introduction of comic books into the school library.“ Middle

  45. What Do Librarians Say? Allyson A. W. Lyga, a Maryland elementary media specialist said, “Since I started stocking our school library with graphic novels six years ago, I’ve discovered that kids love them. Our collection, for students in kindergarten through fifth grade, now has around 125 graphic novels, and they’re by far our most heavily circulated items.” Elementary

  46. The Appeal of Graphic Novels • Motivating • Visual • Permanent • Intermediary • Popular High

  47. How Can They Be Used? Literary Devices • Setting • Plot • Character development • Allusion • Allegory • Foreshadowing • Irony • Satire • Stereotyping • Flashback • Metaphor • Symbolism • Imagery Middle/High

  48. How Can They Be Used? Examine and Compare Cultural Knowledge • social roles and conventions • power structures • formal and informal communication styles • dress • mannerisms • values • stereotypes Middle

  49. Curricula Focus Cultural Issues • The Four Immigrants Manga • Henry (Yoshitaka) Kiyama, 1999 Middle/High

  50. Curricula Focus Cultural Issues • Still I Rise • Roland Owen Laird, Taneshia Nash Laird, & Elihu Bey, 1997 Middle