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KUALITAS TANAH DAN PERTANIAN BERLANJUT

KUALITAS TANAH DAN PERTANIAN BERLANJUT

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KUALITAS TANAH DAN PERTANIAN BERLANJUT

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  1. KUALITAS TANAH DANPERTANIAN BERLANJUT Foto: smno.kampus.ub.febr2013. BahanKajian MK DasarIlmu Tanah Febr 2013

  2. KUALITAS TANAH Soil quality is defined by the interactions of a particular soil’s measurable chemical, physical, and microbiological properties. These properties can be managed and adjusted by farmers. Soil quality, therefore, should be distinguished from a soil’s inherent properties, which cannot be managed or adjusted by farmers. Inherent properties are determined by factors such as climate, topography, vegetation, parent material, and time. From a productivity standpoint, each soil has an innate capacity to function, and some soils will be inherently more productive than others. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  3. INDIKATOR KUALITAS TANAH Kualitastanahdapatdiukurdengan parameter atauindikatortertentu. Examples of such indicators are soil water-holding capacity, organic carbon content, and microbial respiration. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  4. KUALITAS TANAH IndikatorBiologis Some biological indicators of soil quality that are commonly measured include : • Bahanorganiktanah, • Respirasi, • Biomasamikroba (total, bacterial, fungal, or all of these), • C dan N dalambiomassamikroba, • N dapatdimineralisasi. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  5. KUALITAS TANAH BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH - BOT Soil organic matter is that fraction of the soil composed of anything that was once alive. It includes plant and animal remains in various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms, and other organic substances. When the organic substances within the soil and any organic matter that has been added to it, such as compost, decompose, they produce humus—organic matter that is stable or relatively resistant to further decay. BOT Sangatpentingdalammenentukansifatdanperilakufisika, kimiadanbiologitanah. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  6. FUNGSI BAHAN ORGANIK DALAM TANAH Organic matter contributes to plant growth through its effect on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil. Fungsi BOT : Fungsihara, in that it serves as a source of N, P for plant growth FungsiBiologis, in that it profoundly affects the activities of microflora and microfaunal organisms FungsiFisikadanFisko-kimia, that it promotes good soil structure, thereby improving tilth, aeration and retention of moisture and increasing buffering and exchange capacity of soils.

  7. KUALITAS TANAH Respirasi Tanah Soil respiration is the creation of carbon dioxide (CO2) as organic matter decomposes in the soil. It provides a gauge of the activity of living organisms in the soil. Microbial respiration and activity are influenced by such elements as moisture, temperature, availability and degradability of organic residues, and toxic effects of various agricultural chemicals. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  8. KUALITAS TANAH C - Organik. Soil organic carbon, in particular labile (easily decomposed) organic carbon, has an overwhelming effect on soil microbial activity. Labile organic carbon makes up approximately 10 to 14 percent of total soil carbon. It is the heterogeneous mix of living and dead organic materials that are readily circulated through soil biological pools, groups of interacting organisms. C-organikinimerupakancadanganharadalamtanah. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  9. KUALITAS TANAH AktivitasMikroba Microbial activity in the soil can be assessed in a number of ways. Farmers can measure the status of either the total community of micro organisms or specific members of that community. Of these two assessments, the latter is perhaps the most useful. For example, populations of predatory nematodes are good indicators of soil quality. These microscopic worm-like organisms play numerous important roles in the soil, with both negative and positive effects. Some act as primary consumers of plants—in other words, they are pests. Others act as secondary predators of bacterial and fungal feeders—they serve as beneficials in the soil. Analisiskomunitas nematode merupakansalahsatucaramenentukankesehatandankeseimbangansuatutanah. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  10. KUALITAS TANAH Earthworms. Earthworms are also good bioindicators of soil quality. Earthworm populations can tell a researcher a great deal about the structural, microclimatic, nutritive, and toxic status of soils. Large, vertically-burrowing earthworms play an important role in conserving and improving soil structure, recycling soil nutrients, pro-moting the gradual mixing of the soil layers, and creating an aeration and drain-age system in the soil. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  11. KUALITAS TANAH IndikatorKimiawi Petani yang mengharapkanmendapatkanhasiltanamansecaramaksimalmakaiaharusmenyediakanharadalamjumlahbesar. Petanimengubahdanmeningkatkancadanganharadalamtanahdenganjalanpemupukan, membenamkanpupukhijau, danaplikasibahanorganiklainnyasepertikomposdanrabukkandang. The types and proportions of amendments—and how they contribute to soil quality—largely depend on each farmer’s management principles and philosophy. In any case, soil chemistry, with its influence on the availability of nutrients to plants, plays a key role in soil quality. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  12. KUALITAS TANAH Kemasaman = Acidity. Kemasamantanah (pH) merupakansalahsatufaktorutama yang mempengaruhiketersediaanharabagitanaman. The major nutrients (nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous) can’t effectively promote high crop yields if the soil pH is not correct. Decreasing soil pH increases the solubility of elements such as aluminum, zinc, copper, and iron. At pH values less than approximately 5.5, toxic levels of these elements may even be present in the soil. Applying lime will help to increase soil pH and thus decrease the solubility of these elements in the soil. Liming has other benefits as well. It tends to produce favorable conditions for microbial activity in soil, with such related benefits as enhanced nitrogen fixation and, in some cases, improved soil structure. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  13. KUALITAS TANAH IndikatorFisika Sifat-sifatfisikatanahmemperngaruhipertumbuhantanamanmelaluiberbagaicara. Plant health and growth are heavily influenced by the soil’s texture, bulk density (a measure of compaction), porosity, water-holding capacity, and the presence or absence of hard pans. These properties are all improved through additions of organic matter to soils. Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  14. Qualitative Soil Quality Indicators Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  15. Qualitative Soil Quality Indicators Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  16. Qualitative Soil Quality Indicators Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  17. Qualitative Soil Quality Indicators Sumber: Soil Quality Considerations for Organic Farmers. by Keith R. Baldwin. CEFS. Center for Environmental Farming System.

  18. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN Bagaimanatanamantumbuh? Kunciatributtanah Tanah menyediakankebutuhantanamanberupa: • Udara • Air • Unsurhara • Stabilitas/ tempatberpijak Sumber: http://www.plant-and-flower-guide.com/how-do-plants-grow.html DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  19. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  20. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN Kebasahan - Wetness When a soil is very wet for a prolonged time the supply of air to roots may be limited. This level of wetness may be observed directly, but regular episodes of wetness can be indicated by soil colour when it is not currently wet. Deskripsisifat-sifatdalamsetiaplapisan: • Becak-becakberwarna karat • Warnakelabudominan • Kedalamanposisibecak-becak • Topsoil bergambut DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  21. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN BarierAkar - Root barrier Root barriers control the depth of soil that is available for roots to extract water and nutrients, and to anchor the plant. Deskripsisiofat-sifatsetiaplapisan: • Lapisanberbatusangatkompak • Lapisanberbatu yang berpasirlonggar • Batuan • Cadaskeras • Lapisantanah yang kompak • Kebasahanakibatmuka air tanahsangatdangkal. DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  22. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN Berbatu - Stoniness Stones and rocks dilute the volume of soil within the root depth that is available for water storage and nutrients. They have an especially important effect on water storage in soils in seasonally dry climates. Deskripsisifatdalamsetiaplapisan Batuataubatuan Observasisifat : Batuataubatuan Stones range in size from boulders to fine gravel (down to 2 mm diameter). A large number of stones in the soil restricts the volume of soil that is available for roots to explore for water and nutrients. DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  23. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN Porosity Soil pores are cracks or tubular holes in the soil filled with water or air. They can store water or circulate air to roots, and larger pores drain excess water. Sifat-sifat yang harusdideskripsikandalamsetiaplapisan: • Teksturberpasir • Bidangbatas - Weak soil strength • Polaretakan • Perakaran - Roots DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  24. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN Status Hara Alamiah The natural nutrient status includes both the ability of soil to make nutrients readily available to plant roots and to store nutrients in reserves that will become available in the future as the soil matures. It is an expression of the fertility in the absence of fertilisers. Analisistanahdiperlukanuntukmenentukan status haratanahpadasaatsekarang. Beberapakuncipentingbagi status haraalamiah (sebelumdilakukanpemupukan) dapatdiperolehdariobservasitanahdilapangan. The concepts of weathering and leaching: Weathering is the amount of change in the soil material from the original parent material. Over long periods of time (thousands of years) the original parent material decays, sand and silt particles break down into clay, iron in minerals turns to rust, percolating rain water leaches out nutrients, and acidity increases. These and many other processes lead to the formation of distinct soil layers (or horizons). These alterations are indicated by a combination of clay content, colour, and the extent of decay of any stones that may be present. DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  25. SIFAT TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KetahananKekeringan Ancamankekeringanbiasanyamerupakanfaktoriklim, tetapididaerahkeringmusiman, sifat-sifattanahmempengaruhikeparahankekeringan yang dialamitanaman. Drought is related to the amount of water stored in the soil and available for plant survival or growth. The water available to plants can be predicted by inputs from rainfall, losses by evapotranspiration and drainage, and the water storage in the soil. The focus here is only on the soil water storage in the soil. DeskripsiSifat-sifatpadasetiaplapisan Potensikekeringanpadasuatulokasidinyatakandengan : • Kedalaman barrier • Batu-batu • Teksturberpasir DIUNDUH DARI : http://www.mwpress.co.nz/store/downloads/LRSciSeries26_4web.pdf ..... 16/2/2013

  26. Tanah danPertanianBerlanjut • Menjagaproduktivitasdneganjalanmereduksi input eksternal • Menghasilkanjasa-jasaekosistem • Mendukungpertumbuhantanaman • Daurulanghara • Menahandanmenyimpan air tersedia • Pertukaran gas • Konservasimusuhalamihamadanmengendalikanhama • Menyimpankarbon. Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  27. Kualitas Tanah • Kemampuantanahuntukberfungsididalambatas-batasekosistemuntukmendukungtanamandanternak yang sehat, menjagadanmemperbaikikualitas air danudara, danmendukungkesehatanlingkungan / manusiadan habitation. • Kualitastanahmengintegrasikankondisifisika, kimiawidanbiologistanah. Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  28. Dalamsatusendoktanah yang sehatmengandung: Travis & Gugino - PSU Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  29. Jaring-jaringmakanandalamtanah Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  30. Jasa-jasaekosistemygdihasilkanOrganisme Tanah • Many beneficial effects by activities of soil organisms • Decomposition and mineralization • Menyumbangharatanaman(Rhizobia, Mycorrhizae) • Agregasitanah, Stabilitasagregat, danporositas • Infect, compete with or antagonize pests Actinomycetes Predatory Mite Insect-parasitic Fungus Ground and rove beetles Earthworms and other ecosystem engineers Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  31. Apasajakebutuhanorganismetanah? • Ruangan • Air • Udara • Makanan Rose & Elliot Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  32. Gangguan Tanah dalamPertanian Tanah sawahpadamusimkemaraudiolahuntukmenanambibittomat

  33. BeberapaEfekPengolahan Tanah • Soil organisms more abundant and more diverse in systems that reduce soil disturbance • Organisms vary in sensitivity • Olahtanahmeningkatkanfluktuasi: • Lengastanah • Suhutanah • Residutanamandan BOT • Pencampurantranah • Kerusakanstrukturtanah • Risikoerosi Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  34. PENGELOLAAN BOT Akartumbuhan Dedaunan Mulsa Rabukkandang Kompos PupukHijau Tingkat Kesetimbangan BOT tercapai • Panen • Oksidasi • Erosi Olahtanah Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  35. Kualitastanah: PertanianOrganikvs. Tanpa-olahSustainable Agriculture Demonstration Project, USDA, Beltsville, MD1994-2002 Teasdale et al., 2007. Agron. J. 99: 1297-1305. Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  36. RotasiTanamandanPertanianberlanjut: Efekrotasitanamanterhadapkualitastanahdnaproduktivitasnya. R. Weil, Univ. MD Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  37. PengelolaandanKonservasiPengendalianHayati • Tujuan: Memperbaikilingkunganygsesuaiuntukproses-prosesdanorganisme yang menguntungkan • “Farmscaping”: menyediakantanamanatau habitat, mis., • pollen and nectar resources required by many insect natural enemies and pollinators • refuge strips of flowering plants, hedgerows • beetle banks or grassy drive lanes • Tanamantahunan • Tanamanpenutuptanah Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  38. Tanamanpenutuptanahdanjasaekosistem • Cover crops can enhance numbers of soil organisms • Add diversity to system • Add food resources for beneficial insects – pollen and nectar • Seresahnyamenjadi habitat bagi predator • Bersaingdengangulma • Melindungitanah • Kesuburantanahdanretensihara Hairy Vetch Buckwheat Mustard Photos: T. Pisani Gareau Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  39. PengelolaanpertanianuntukKualitas Tanah danJasaEkosistem • Continuous resources • mis. hay/pasture, tanamantahunan, mulsa, penutuptanah, high root:shoot ratio, controlled grazing, kompos, rabukkandang • Tanamandanragampengelolaannya • Mis. Rotasitanaman, refuge strips, hedgerows, polycultures, cover crops • MengurangiGangguan • Mis. woodlands/orchards, pasture, reduce or rotate tillage, refuges, tanamantahunanataupenutuptanah, minim biosida Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  40. JasaEkosistem Tanah: Mineralization danImmobilization Organismemengkonsumsi BOT danorganismelainnyamenghasilkanlimbahanorganik Hara anorganiktersediabagitanamandanbersifatmobildalamtanah Hara Organikdisimpandalamorganismetanahdandalambahanorganik Organismemengambildanmenyimpanharauntukpertumbuhannya Diunduhdari: www.sjrcd.org/soilhealth/.../ppt/Barbercheck-...... 12/2/2013 

  41. DefinisiKualitas Tanah Soil Fertility Physical Properties Biological Activity “The ability of soil to function; to supply plants with adequate nutrients, have good drainage and aeration, promote root growth and biological activity.” Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  42. A Definition of Soil Quality Context: soil type, slope, climate……. Problems -Salinity -Low in nutrients -Erosion -Drainage • Soil Quality • - High OM • - Tilth • - Infiltration • Nutrient buffering Soil is OK Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  43. Ujitanahuntukkualitasnya: Fisika, Kimia, Biologis Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  44. Fill a jar 2/3 with soil. Fill the same jar about 7/8 full of water. Add detergent (optional) to break up aggregates. Dikocokdenganbaik. Measure height of settling at 30 seconds, 30 minutes, and 24 hours – or -- look at particle size differences – sand, silt, and clay layers. UjiFisika – Tekstur Tanah Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  45. Teksturtanahditentukanolehbahaninduktanah, erosimasalalu, dan deposit baru(mislanyapenambahan topsoil) • Tanah berpasir– good drainage, but doesn’t hold water or nutrients well. (particles 0.05 to 2 mm) • Tanah Debu– moderate drainage, moderate nutrient and water holding capacity. (0.002 – 0.05 mm) • Tanah Liat– poor drainage, can supply K mineral, shrink/swell with water (<0.002 mm) Semuakarakteristikinidiperbaikiolehpenambahanbahanorganiktanah, misalnyakompos. Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  46. BahanOrganik Tanah BO aktif BO stabil Ujitanahuntuk BO BO makro (mulch, residue, roots, large pieces of compost, etc.) BO terdekomposisi (PartikulatorganikatauPOM) Uji Humus Humus stabil Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  47. Stabilitasagregat = Agregat yang stabil air Agregatygmantapterbentukolehprosesagregasiliat (partikelhalus), ygdiikutidenganpengikatanbersamamenjadiagregatmakrodenganbantuanperekathasilsekresibakteri, hifajamurdanakar-akarrambut. Fungsibahanorganiktanah Organic matter contributes to plant growth through its effect on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil. It has a : Fungsi per-hara-an, in that it serves as a source of N, P for plant growth Fungsibiologis, in that it profoundly affects the activities of microflora and microfaunal organisms Fungsifisikdanfisiko-kimia , that it promotes good soil structure, thereby improving tilth, aeration and retention of moisture and increasing buffering and exchange capacity of soils.

  48. Metodeayakanbasah. Demonstrate with a few aggregates in a shallow dish. Mengukurstabilitasagregat Field soil Prairie soil Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  49. Soil biology: important, but difficult to measure. Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.

  50. Ujibiologitanahmeliputijumlahcacfingtanah (dengantangan), ekstraksiseranggatanahdengancahayadiatasdandibawahcerobongmenujujaring. No accurate tests yet for microbial species diversity. Soil respiration rate tests also available, but difficult to interpret. Biologi Tanah……. Sumber: Soil Quality – Why it matters. Rhonda Janke. Assoc. Prof and Ext Specialist, KSU.