How drinkwater is purified in The Netherlands. Sub-topics: -the proces -health -the costs -disinfection -the danger of drugs in our body
Proem. Waterpurify is toremoveothermatrial out of the water, soyou have clean water to drink. The drinkwater is made of ground- andsurface water but ifyoudon’t clean the water, you have got the organic- andchemicalsubstances, andthey’reverydangerousforyour health. We’lltell more aboutthis subject later on. We alsogoingtotellabout the costs of waterpurify.
The proces of the purify of drinkwater. There are a lot of methodstopurify the water. The most usedmethodstopurify the water are: - aeration - fast and slow sand filtration - active carbon filtration -removal of bacteria, viruses, and salts by means of membrane filtration -disinfection by treatment with ozone UV light or chlorine.
Health. Ifyouusemedicans you’ll pie a part of the medicans out, so it will come into the sewer. The water out of sewer will be purified but theycan’tremoveall of the parts of the medicans, sotherewillalwaysbestubstances of medicans in our drinkwater. In the Netherlands we use a lot of antibiotics, sothiscomealso in our drinkwater. Ourbodiesreact on antibiotics. Because we use many drugs in the Netherlands there is a lot in our drinking water. Because we get a lot to do with drinking those substances our bodies regularly and the body becomes accustomed to those substances, that wouldn’t help to from diseases. Our bodies will be accustomed to those substances, so we get drugs in our body that could not help us against diseases later.
The costs of waterpurify. The cost for a technique or a combination of these techniques is determined by a large number of conditions, where the free market principle is the most important and most difficult to handle factor. All this will lead to that good calculations who are to be carried out, but that is retained. A certain bandwidth also in the literature, are cost of water treatment and accurate not fully documented.
Disinfection Disinfection is accomplished both by filtering out harmful micro-organisms and also by adding disinfectant chemicals. Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens which pass through the filters and to provide a residual dose of disinfectant to kill or inactivate potentially harmful micro-organisms in the storage and distribution systems. Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria, including Salmonella, Cholera, Campylobacterand Shigella, and protozoa, Giardialamblia and other cryptosporidia. Following the introduction of any chemical disinfecting agent, the water is usually held in temporary storage often called a contact tank or clear well to allow the disinfecting action to complete.
Solar water disinfection One low-cost method of disinfecting water that can often be implemented with locally available materials is solar disinfection(SODIS).Unlike methods that rely on firewood, it has low impact on the environment. One recent study has found that the Salmonella which would reproduce quickly during subsequent dark storage of solar-disinfected water could be controlled by the addition of just 10 parts per million of hydrogen peroxide.
Chlorine disinfection The most common disinfection method involves some form of chlorine or its compounds such as chloramine or chlorine dioxide. Chlorine is a strong oxidant that rapidly kills many harmful micro-organisms. Because chlorine is a toxic gas, there is a danger of a release associated with its use. This problem is avoided by the use of sodium hypochlorite, which is a relatively inexpensive solution that releases free chlorine when dissolved in water. The generation of liquid sodium hypochlorite is both inexpensive and safer than the use of gas or solid chlorine. All forms of chlorine are widely used, despite their respective drawbacks. One drawback is that chlorine from any source reacts with natural organic compounds in the water to form potentially harmful chemical by-products. These by-products, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), are both carcinogenic in large quantities and are regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Drinking Water Inspectorate in the UK.
The danger of drugs in our drinking water Medicines trough the urine and feces of patients end up in the sewage and then also in the drinking water. The concentration of drug in the drinking water is too low to be harmful to people. What people undetected get through drinking water is about 1000 times less than what patients are deliberately taken in swallowing medication. However, the long term effects of exposure to such low concentrations of drugs or mixtures of such agents is unknown.
THE END! Made by JayanthiRamfulsing H4C Jessica Platen H4B Quinty Spiering H4B