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XXIV International Congress of Entomology, Daegu , South Korea, Aug 2012 Section 14. Does Knowledge Of Natural Host Range Always Help Predict Host Range In New Areas Of Introduction? A Case Study With M icroctonus aethiopoides Loan. Barratt, BIP AgReseArch NZ

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XXIV International Congress of Entomology, Daegu, South Korea, Aug 2012 Section 14

Does Knowledge Of Natural Host Range Always Help Predict Host Range In New Areas Of Introduction? A Case Study With MicroctonusaethiopoidesLoan

  • Barratt, BIP AgReseArch NZ
  • Oberprieler, RG CSIRO AUStralia
  • Barton, DM AgReseArch NZ
  • Mouna, M InstitutScientifique, rabat, Morocco
  • Stevens, M DPI, NSW, Australia
  • Alonso-Zarazaga, MA MuseoNacional de CienciasNaturales (CSIC), Madrid, spain
  • Vink, CJ AgReseArch NZ
  • Ferguson, CM AgReseArch NZ
outline
outline
  • Background, case study and objectives
  • Natural range
    • Morocco
  • Novel range
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • How well could we predict risk for NZ?
  • Summary
outline1
outline
  • Background, case study and objectives
  • Natural range
    • Morocco
  • Novel range
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • How well could we predict risk for NZ?
  • Summary
background
Background
  • Natural host range (hosts in area of origin) and
  • novel host-range (hosts in a new receiving environment) often informs biosafety risk assessment
  • Regulators often request natural and novel host range data as part of risk assessment
    • e.g. FAO ‘Code of Conduct’ (1996)
case study
Case study
  • Microctonus aethiopoides Loan
  • (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
  • Solitary, koinobiont endoparasitoid of
  • the adult stage of its host
  • Hosts die when the parasitoid emerges
  • Females sterilised soon after parasitism
  • Introduced from Morocco into Australia
  • in 1977 and to NZ from Australia in 1982
  • Effective biocontrol agent esp. in NZ
  • Since release been found to attack
      • NZ - 19 non-target weevil species in the field (14 natives)
      • AUS – 1 non-target in field
objective
objective
  • Determine retrospectively...
  • would better knowledge of the natural host range of M. aethiopoides in Morocco
  • and
  • novel host-range in Australia
  • ....have helped predict novel host range in NZ?
outline2
outline
  • Background, case study and objectives
  • Natural range
    • Morocco
  • Novel range
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • How well could we predict risk for NZ?
  • Summary
known natural host range
Known natural host range
  • Sitona spp (8)
  • Hypera spp. (3)
  • Loan (1975), Aeschlimann (1980)
  • Is the natural host range wider than this?
natural range morocco
Natural range - morocco
  • Sampled monthly (Sep-May) in 3 lucerne-growing regions:
    • Rabat – 3 sites (coastal plains)
    • Marrakech – 3 sites (inland semi-arid)
    • Ar-Rachidia – 4 sites (arid oasis)

Blower-vac in lucerne and surrounding vegetation

Morocco

natural range morocco1
Natural range - morocco
  • Weevils identified, dissected for:
  • Parasitism – parasitoids kept for

molecular identification

  • Gender determination
  • Reproductive status Phenology
  • Teneral condition

}

results morocco
Results - morocco
  • 3,642 weevils collected, 84 % were S. discoideus
  • Others:
    • 46 species (4 families, 11 subfamilies, 23 tribes)
  • Hypera postica most common – in top 3 in all regions
  • Lixus ulcerosus common, only at Ar-Rachidia
  • Malvapion malvae - 4th most common Ar-Rachidia and Marrakech regions
  • Charagmus gressorius common at Rabat
results morocco2
Results - morocco

S. discoideus numbers/10

results morocco3
Results - morocco

S. discoideus numbers/10

results morocco4
Results - morocco

S. discoideus

S. discoideus numbers/10

known natural host range1
Known natural host range
  • Sitona spp (8)
  • Hypera spp. (3)
  • Loan (1975), Aeschlimann (1980)
  • Is the natural range wider than this?
  • This study added another two host species in genus Charagmus, (C. gressorius and C. griseus)
  • Charagmus formerlya subgenus of Sitona*
  • *Velazquez de Castro et al (2007)
natural range morocco2
Natural range - morocco
  • Charagmus griseus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Charagmus gressorius Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona discoideus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona hispidulus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona lepidus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona lineatus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona macularius Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona puncticollis Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona sulcifrons Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona tenuis Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Hypera meles Hyperinae: Hyperini
  • Hypera nigrirostris Hyperinae: Hyperini
  • Hypera postica Hyperinae: Hyperini
outline3
outline
  • Background, case study and objectives
  • Natural range
    • Morocco
  • Novel range
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • How well could we predict risk for NZ?
  • Summary
known novel range australia
Known Novel range - australia
  • 2001 - Survey of 25 sites in SE Australia
  • About 2500 weevils were collected, of which over 90% were S. discoideus
  • 29 other weevil spp.
  • Single incidence of NT parasitism at
  • Yanco Agric. Inst. NSW
  • Barratt et al. 2005. Australian
  • Journal of Entomology 44: 192-200

NSW

SA

Yanco

‘Prosayleus’ sp. 2

(Entiminae: Leptopiini)

VIC

novel range australia
Novel range – australia
  • Sampled at Yanco
    • Blower-Vac in irrigated and dryland lucerne
  • Weevils identified, dissected for parasitism
  • Parasitoids kept for molecular ID
results australia
Results - australia
  • 3,338 weevils collected, 90% S. discoideus
  • Other common species:
  • ‘Prosayleus’ sp. 2
  • Ethemaia sellata
  • Asynonychus cervinus
results australia parasitism
Results australia - parasitism
  • S. discoideus - <25%
  • No other species parasitised
  • 49 Prosayleus ‘sp. 2’ collected (47 in dryland lucerne)
outline4
outline
  • Background, case study and objectives
  • Natural range
    • Morocco
  • Novel range
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • How well could we predict risk for NZ?
  • Summary
novel range new zealand
Novel range – New Zealand
  • Eugnomussp.1 Curculioninae: Eugnomini
  • Listroderesdelaiguei * Cyclominae: Listroderini
  • Listronotusbonariensis * Cyclominae: Listroderini
  • Steriphusvariabilis Cyclominae: Listroderini
  • Irenimus aemulator Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus aequalis Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus albosparsus Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus duplex Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus egens Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus similis Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus stolidus Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana cervina Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana cinerea Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana fraudator Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana sp. 1 Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nonnotusalbicans Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Sitona lepidus * Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Rhinocyllus conicus * Lixinae: Cleonini
  • Atrichonotustaeniatulus * Entiminae: Naupactini
outline5
outline
  • Background, case study and objectives
  • Natural range
    • Morocco
  • Novel range
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • How well could we predict risk for NZ?
  • Summary
what we thought in 1970 80 s
What we thought in 1970-80s
  • Only known hosts of M. aethiopoides in genera Sitona and Hypera
  • Considered to be in separate sub-families
  • Neither genus (or tribes) occur naturally in NZ
  • Requirement for quarantine testing – minimal in NZ in 1980s
    • Mainly weed BCAs tested
    • No NT attack detected
what we know now
What we know now
  • Recent phylogenetic analyses have shown that Hyperinae and Entiminae are closely related
  • In Europe, Hyperini cluster within the Entiminae*
    • Sitona and Hypera probably much more closely related than previously thought
  • Also in Australia, Hyperini and Entiminae are in the same clade**
  • In NZ and Aus the Entiminae predominantly in large southern hemisphere tribe Leptopiini
  • Leptopiini is poorly if at all represented in the northern hemisphere

*Hundsdörfer, A.K., Rheinheimer, J. and Wink, M., 2009. Towards the phylogeny of the Curculionoidea (Coleoptera): reconstructions from mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. ZoologischerAnzeiger 248: 9–31

Gunter, Oberprieler and Cameron (in prep.)

did this case study help
Did this case study help?
  • Does knowledge of natural host range always help predict host range in new areas of introduction?
  • Yes, it can provide a valuable contribution to risk assessment provided:
  • Phylogenetic relationships are well understood
  • The fauna of the natural and receiving range is well known
  • Can be assisted by knowledge of host range in other new areas of introduction
outline6
outline
  • Background, case study and objectives
  • Natural range
    • Morocco
  • Novel range
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • How well could we predict risk for NZ?
  • Summary
summary
Summary
  • The combination of evidence that:
    • In Australia a species of Prosayleus (Entiminae: Leptopiini) was found to be a host
    • In NZ Leptopiini are well represented
    • In Morocco, Entiminae are well represented but NOT Leptopiini are scarcely (if at all) represented
  • Probably sufficient to suggest need for host range testing with native NZ Leptopiini
  • Significant NT parasitism would have been detected
acknowledgements
acknowledgements
  • Colleagues in AgResearch and the Research collaboration ‘Better Border Biosecurity’
  • Funding:
  • Foundation for Research, Science and Technology
  • Department of Conservation