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Objectives. Identify the states that supported the Union, the states that seceded, and the states whose loyalties were divided. Describe the advantages each side had in the war. Compare the different strategies used by the North and the South

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objectives
Objectives
  • Identify the states that supported the Union, the states that seceded, and the states whose loyalties were divided.
  • Describe the advantages each side had in the war.
  • Compare the different strategies used by the North and the South
  • Summarize the results of the First Battle of Bull Run.
  • Describe the conditions soldiers in camp
key terms and vocabulary
Key Terms and Vocabulary

Border State – slave states that did not secede

Neutral – not favoring either side

Martial Law – the military is in charge and citizens’ rights are suspended

Blockade – military action preventing traffic from coming into or leaving an area.

why did each side think the war would be won easily
Why did each side think the war would be won easily?
  • North Advantages– Population, Factories, Railroads

Anaconda Plan –

  • Blockade the South
  • Control the Mississippi River
  • Capture Richmond
north vs south
North Vs. South

Union

Confederacy

The North had to invade the South

Recruited former top generals: Robert E. Lee, Albert Johnston, and Joseph Johnston

  • 70% of nation’s population
  • 85% of factories
  • Twice as much railroad as the South
  • Far more resources to supply troops than the South
why did each side think the war would be won easily1
Why did each side think the war would be won easily?
  • South Advantages– Military leadership, Home turf

Many in the south believed that European nations would aid them due to their need for cotton exports

the call to arms
The Call to Arms
  • In response to the attack on Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for 75,000 troops
the call to arms1
The Call to Arms
  • As a result, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the Confederacy
  • This left Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland, and Missouri undecided.
  • Border States – Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware
kentucky
Kentucky
  • Kentucky wanted to stay neutral in the beginning
  • Union troops wanted to occupy the state but Lincoln prevented them
  • Confederate troops invaded in mid 1861, the state eventually joined the Union.
maryland1
Maryland
  • Maryland was vital due to the location of Washington D.C.
  • Southern supporters destroyed infrastructure in protest
  • In response, Lincoln enacted martial law in eastern Maryland, jailed suspected traitors without trial
missouri
Missouri
  • Missouri’s government sided with the South
  • Union supporters set up their own government
  • Intense fighting broke out as a result
  • Lincoln sent troops in an attempt to keep Missouri with the Union. The plan worked and Missouri stayed throughout the war.
americans against americans
Americans Against Americans
  • Many men rushed to enlist on both sides
  • Many young men fought, some soldiers were as young as 14
  • Brother against brother, Father against son
first battle of bull run
First Battle of Bull Run
  • Union General Irvin McDowell needed time to train troops and get organized
first battle of bull run1
First Battle of Bull Run
  • However, pressure from media to quickly capture Richmond caused them to march
  • 30,000 Union troops marched toward Richmond and met Confederates at Manassas
  • The Confederates, led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, held firm and the Union forces were forced to retreat back to Washington
first battle of bull run cont
First Battle of Bull Run cont.
  • The Union troops were unprepared and unorganized
  • Many expected an easy victory for the North
  • The Confederates victory proved that the war would be long and bloody.
a soldier s life1
A Soldier’s Life
  • Most soldiers spent the majority of their time in camp
  • Training took up to 10 hours a day
a soldier s life2
A Soldier’s Life
  • A meal would sometimes consist of only a cracker-like product called hardtack
a soldier s life3
A Soldier’s Life
  • Soldiers wrote many letters home to loved ones
camp conditions
Camp Conditions
  • Storms were common, adding to the already miserable conditions
  • A lack of clean water caused diseases to spread
camp conditions1
Camp Conditions
  • Smallpox, typhoid fever and other diseases were common
  • Sometimes half of a regiment would be too sick to fight
prison camps
Prison Camps
  • Both sides underestimated how many prisoners they would have
  • This led to extremely overcrowded camps
  • Some camps held twice as many prisoners as expected
  • As a result, thousands died due to starvation and exposure