International Marketing Research. Intl Marketing Research. Define the research problem Gather data Secondary data sources Primary data collection Draw conclusions Example: estimating market demand. Int’l Marketing Research.
Intl Marketing Research • Define the research problem • Gather data • Secondary data sources • Primary data collection • Draw conclusions • Example: estimating market demand
Int’l Marketing Research • Gathering information – on which to base decisions – to answer questions regarding foreign markets • Assess: • What type of information do you need? • What issues/problems might you confront?
Defining the Research Problem Ask the right question … • Campbell’s is interested in possibly introducing a soup product to India. What information would help with this decision? In India, people eat with their fingers… does this knowledge influence the type of information you seek?
Asking the right question (con’t) • Frito Lay wants to introduce a snack chip in Thailand. What flavor would be appropriate? Prawn? … or BBQ? Focus group research indicates that while prawn is the favorite flavor in Thailand for most food items, Thais prefer Western flavors for potato chips.
Beware the pitfalls of SRC Self Reference Criterion • Referring to one’s own cultural experience, knowledge, etc. as the basis for decisions about foreign markets. =
Gathering data • Secondary data sources • Data available in some published form, either for free or for a fee • Examples: • STAT-USA – U.S. Department of Commerce • International Trade Administration – ibid • Baby Food: Key World Players - $10,425 MarketResearch.com • Doing Business in ______. Price Waterhouse (tax & accounting issues)
Gathering data • Primary data… get it yourself • Methods: • Surveys (phone, mail) • Interviews (personal) • Observation (e.g., UPC scanning, pantry audits)
Issues/Problems with Primary Data Collection… Language Sampling SRC
Language issues Translation issues: One translation is not enough
Language Poor translations are a waste of your money – unless your goal is to entertain or frustrate potential customers. • In a Czechoslovakian tourist agency: • Take one of our horse-driven city tours -- we guarantee no miscarriages. • From a brochure of a car rental firm in Tokyo: • When passenger of foot heave in sight, tootle the horn. Trumpet him melodiously at first, but if he still obstacles your passage then tootle him with vigor. Excerpts from Whittaker, Jeffrey (2002). Multilanguage translation services. Retrieved January 22, 2002 from http://anotherlanguage.com/funny.htm
Language • Back translations can help resolve some of these direct translation errors: • Back translation = a minimum of two steps: • English native translates to Spanish • Spanish native backtranslates to English • Work out inconsistencies and translate again
But even back translation has its problems…. Input:Oh Canada. Our home and native land. True patriot love, in all our sons command. With glowing hearts we see the rise of the true north strong and free. From far and wide, oh Canada, we stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free, oh Canada we stand on guard for thee! Translation: to German and back Output: OH Canada. Our main and homeland. Applicable Patriotliebe, in all to our sons instruct. With glowing inside we see the rise of the applicable northstrong and that free. From far and far, we are to OH Canada on protection for thee. And, OH Canada releases God maintenance our splendourful country, which we on protection for the thee! The point: translations require many iterations before communication is possible. Good translators are worth the money!
Language • Some helpful hints: • The subject and verb always has to agree. • Never use a preposition to end a sentence with. • The Passive Voice shouldn't be used. • Avoid clichés like the plague. • No sentence fragments. • A writer must not shift your point of view. Excerpts from Whittaker, Jeffrey (2002). Multilanguage translation services. Retrieved January 22, 2002 from http://anotherlanguage.com/funny.htm
Language Another language problem: Multiple languages If your survey is in Spanish, will it be understood throughout Central America? (Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Panama) In what other language(s) should the survey be made available? e.g., Guatemala: native languages include Mam, Cachiquel, Quiche
Sampling issues • Availability of Research Participants • Telephone surveys: • only 21% of population in Central America • owns a phone • those who do tend to have higher incomes • but nearly everyone watches TV – so how do you find out if they saw your TV commercial? • Personal (home-to-home) interviews: • remember to bring a translator for native tongues
SRC issues • If nearly 100% of the population in Central America watches the nightly TV soap operas while enjoying a beverage from the fridge, what can we assume about demand for electric appliances? • BE CAREFUL – don’t make assumptions based on the way things are in the U.S. • Up to 35% of households have no electricity: • Most TVs (esp. rural) are battery powered • Most refrigerators are gas powered
Estimating market demand… Use marketing research to estimate foreign market potential for a product. How?
Estimating Market Demand • existing vs. potential markets • existing: old product, new market (cameras/film ~ China) • potential: new product category (wireless web) • traditional forecasting methods • Multiply this year’s sales by change from last year’s: • $55M (year 2001) - $49.5M (year 2000) = + 11.1% ; $55M x 1.11 = $61.05 (year 2002) • $49.5M (year 2000)
Estimating Market Demand • published forecasts • expert opinion