chapter 19 section 3 americans on the european front
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Chapter 19 Section 3 Americans on the European Front

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Chapter 19 Section 3 Americans on the European Front. Draftees and Volunteers Selective Service Act - May 1917 authorizing a draft of young men for military service

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slide2
Draftees and Volunteers
  • Selective Service Act- May 1917 authorizing a draft of young men for military service
  • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) - November 1918 24 million men were signed up for the draft 3 million men were picked for the draft volunteers and National Guardsmen made this up
  • 11,000 women volunteered to serve as nurses, drivers and clerks
  • 14,000_ women served abroad as civilians working for the government or private agencies
slide3
Training for War
  • In September draftees went to basic to learn how to bayonet a rifle, dig a trench, put on a gas mask and throw a grenade.
  • They learned German Crimes and strategies of Trench Warfare
  • They did not receive much training because America tried to get soldiers into France
slide4
The Convoy System
  • May 1917 all merchant and troop ships traveled in Convoy
  • Convoy group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats and other armed naval vessels equipped with hydrophones to track and destroy submarines
  • Between April and December 1917 merchant marine losses dropped by half
  • Successful U-boats did not sink a single U.S. troopship traveling to Europe
slide5
American Soldiers in Europe
  • AEF arrived in France in June 1917
  • Perishing view- Allies became too accustomed to defensive action; he wanted to save his men’s strength for offensive moves
  • American soldiers brought strength, good health, and energy to the trenches
  • They were called Dough boys
  • 300,000 African Americans fought in segregated units but most never saw action
  • Marines did not take African Americans, the navy used them as menial tasks only and the army used them for manual labor
  • 369th Infantry known as the Harlem Hell Fighters persuaded white officers to loan them to the French, they revived France’s highest combat medal, the Croix de Guerre
slide14
Turning the Tide of the War
  • After Russia withdrew from the war Germany concentrated all of their forces on the Western Front
  • March 21, 1918 Germany attacked British lines and advanced deep into Allied territory
  • By May they were only about 50 miles from Paris
slide15
Americans Save Paris
  • General Pershing dispatched troops to the front
  • American troops attacked and recaptured the village of Cantigny on May 28
  • A week later Marine’s stopped German attacks on Belleau Wood and Château-Thierry
  • Lost half the troops but saved Paris
  • Mid July Germans launched a massive attack on French positions at the River of the Marne 28,000 Americans helped force the Germans to the other side of the river into retreat.
  • Ended German hopes for victory
slide16
Allied Counter attack
  • 250,000 Americans were arriving in Europe every month
  • The tank allowed soldiers to cross into No Mans Land this caused a break in German lines
  • August 8 the battle of Amiens allied armies stopped the German advance in the north and recaptured German gains from the pervious year
  • General von Ludendorff advised Kaiser Wilhelm to seek peace settlements
  • September troops hit final German strongholds
  • St. Mihiel was the first all American battle; this was successful
  • September 26, 1918 the final allied assault Meuse-Argonne Offensive caused Germany to go into a full retreat from the Argonne Forest and the region of the Meuse River
slide17
War in the Air
  • Airplanes were used in war; they were wooden, covered in cloth and had an open cock pit
  • Air battles were fought with pistols and later with machine guns
  • Zeppelins floating airships and German bombers launched more then 100 raids on London killing 1,500 civilians
slide18
Ending the War
  • The Central Powers Broke down
  • Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire made peace treaties with the Allies
  • Austria-Hungary splintered in October as Poles, Hungarians, Czechs and Slovaks declared independence
  • Germany begged for peace when fighting was brought on German soil
  • British Navy dominated the sea
  • November 10 Kaiser fled to Holland
  • A civilian representative of the New German Republic signed an Armistice or cease fire
  • In a French Railroad car at 5:00 A.M. November 11, 1918 it was signed six hours later guns fell silent
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